Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders

Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders

Obiegbuna, J.E*., Nwankwo, J.A., Ozue, J.O. and Okolo A.C.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

The yield and physicochemical properties of single grain and multigrain akamu powders were evaluated. Akamu, ogi or pap, powders were produced by soaking (fermenting) cereal grains (48-72 h), wet-milling, sieving, dewatering, drying (50oC) and pulverizing maize (MBA), pearl millet (PMBA) and sorghum (SBA). Multigrain akamu was produced by co-fermenting equal proportions of maize, pearl millet and sorghum (Blend1); and singly fermenting these cereals and blending the end products (Blend2). Yield, proximate and mineral compositions, functional and sensory properties of akamu were analyzed following established methods. The yield of MBA, PMBA, SBA, Blend1 and Blend2 were respectively 60%, 70%, 80%, 53.33% and 68.67%. Chemically, SBA had significantly (p<0.05) higher protein (10.17%), fiber (8.00%), iron, zinc, potassium and sodium contents than MBA and PMBA. The carbohydrate content of PMBA (69.27%) was higher (p < 0.05) than that of MBA (66.20%) and SBA (66.30%). PMBA had the lowest protein (7.55%) and MBA the lowest fiber (3.97%) content. The fat (6.27%) and ash (4.67%) of PMBA were significantly higher than that of SBA with 5.47% and 2.00%, respectively. Only the ash, carbohydrate, iron and sodium contents of multigrain akamu differed significantly (p<0.05) with Blend1 having higher carbohydrate and iron values but lower ash and sodium values. The water absorption capacity (WAC) of PMBA (1.87 g/g) was lower (p<0.05) than other single and multi grain samples. MBA had lowest emulsion activity (EA) (44.33%) but highest emulsion stability (ES) of 77.43% while SDA had the highest EA (50.00%). The ES of PMBA (55.17%) was significantly lower than that of MBA and SBA and the multigrain akamu samples. MBA and PMBA had significantly higher swelling capacity (SC) than SBA and the multigrain akamu. PBMA had lower least gelation concentration (LGC) (6%) than other single and multigrain samples which had 8%. The sensory properties of MBA were most preferred to other single and multi grain akamu samples.

Keywords: Akamu, single grain, multi grain, yield, physicochemical properties

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Obiegbuna, J.E*., Nwankwo, J.A., Ozue, J.O. and Okolo A.C.Evaluation of Yield and Physicochemical Properties of Single Cereal Grain Akamu and Pre- and Post- Processed Multigrain Cereal Akamu Powders. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2019; 3:29. DOI:10.28933/ijfnr-2019-05-2206


1. Afolayan, M.O., Afolayan, M. and Abuah, J.N. Investigation into sorghum based ogi (ogi-baba) storage characteristics. Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology 2010; 2(1): 72 – 78.
2. Akanbi, B.O., Agarry, O.O and Garba, S.A. Quality assessment of selected soybean mixture in ogi production. New York Science Journal 2010; 3(10): 17 – 26.
3. Osungbaro, T.O. Physical and nutritive properties of fermented cereal foods. African Journal of Food Science 2009; 3(2): 023-027
4. Omemuo, A.M., Oyewole, B.O. and Bankole, M.O. Significance of yeast in the fermentation of maize for ogi production. Food Microbiology 2007; 24: 571 – 576.
5. Torneka, A.F., Munde, V.K. and Kokane, S.S. Effect of replacing maize withpearl millet (Bajra) on the performance of broilers. Veterinary World 2009; 2(8): 310-312.
6. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. Washington DC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2000.
7. Lawal, N.S., Tajuddeen, N. and Garba, B.B. Assessment of some mineral elements in different brands of powdered milk sold in Samaru Zaria, Nigeria. International Food Research Journal 2015; 22(6): 2634-2636
8. Abbey, B. W. and Ibeh, G. O. Functional properties of raw and heat processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour. Journal of Food Science 1988; 53(6): 1178-1188.
9. Sosulski, F.W., Garatt, M.O. and Slinkard, A.E. Functional properties of ten legume flours. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 1976; 9:66 – 69.
10. Yasumatsu, K., Sawada, K., Moritaka, S., Misalei, M., Toda, J., Wada, T. and Ishii, K. Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 1972; 36: 719-727.
11. Coffman C.W. and Garcia V.V. Functional properties of flours prepared from Chinese indigenous legume seed. Journal of Food Chemistry 1977; 61: 429-433.
12. Okaka, J.C. and potter, N.N. Functional and storage properties of cowpea-wheat flour blends in bread making. Journal of Food Science 1977; 42: 828 – 833.
13. Hoseney, R.C. and Delcour, J.A. Structure of cereals. In: Principles of Cereals Science and Technology (3rd edn). St Paul. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) International Publication. 2010, pp 1 – 22.
14. Watson, S.A. Description, development, structure, and composition of corn kernel. In: P.J. White and L.A. Johnson (Eds), Corn Chemistry and Technology. St Paul American Association of Cereal Chemistry. 2003, pp 69 – 101.
15. Xie, X.J. and Liang, Y.T.S. Wet-milling of grain sorghum of varying size without steeping starch. Biosynthesis Nutrition Biomedical 2006; doi.org/10.1002/star.2005004. www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com Adapted: March 2019
16. Gomez, M.I., Obalina, A.B., Martin, D.F., Madzvamuse, M. and Monyo, E.S. Manualof Laboratory Procedures for Quality Evaluation of Sorghum and Pearl Millet. International Crops research Institute for the Semi-Arid tropics (ICRISAT), Andhra Pradesh, India. Patancheru, 1997).
17. Ojo, D.O. and Enujiugha, V.N. Physicochemical properties, chemical composition and acceptability of instant ogi from blends of fermented maize, conophor nut and melon seeds. Journal of food Processing Technology 2016; 7: 640 – 644.
18. Abioye, V.F., Olanipekun, B.F., Olaniyan, S.A. and Oyakale O.O. Quality assessment of fermented gruel (ogi) made from sorghum (Soghum bicolour) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves. Asian Food Science Journal 2018; 4(3): 1 – 7.
19. Eke-Ejiofor, J. and Beleya, E.A. Chemical, mineral, pasting and sensory properties of spiced ogi (gruel). American Journal of Food Science and Technology 2017; 5(5): 204 – 209.
20. Akubor, P.I. and Obiegbuna, J.E. Certain chemical and functional properties of ungerminated and germinated millet flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology 1999; 36(3): 241 – 243.
21. Kinsella, J.E., Srinivasan, D. and Bruce, G. Physical, chemical and functional propetiesof oil seed protein with emphasis on soy proteins. In: A.M. Altschul and H.L. Wilcks (Eds), New Protein Foods. New York, Academic Press, 1985, pp 107 – 111.
22. Abdalla, A.A., Ahmed, U.M., Ahmed, A.R., El Tinay, A.H. and Ibrahim, K.A. Physicochemical characterization of traditionally extracted pearl millet starch (Jir). Journal of Applied Sciences Research 2009; 5(11): 2016 -2027.
23. Hansen, J.R. Hydration of soybean protein: Effect of isolation. Agriculture and Food Chemistry 1978; 26: 301 – 304.
24. Tizazu, H. and Emire, S.A. Chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of lupin (Lupinus albus) seeds grown in Ethiopia. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 2010; 10(8): 3029 – 3046.
25. Kaushel, P., kumara, V. and Sharma H.K. Comparative study of physicochemical, functional, anti-nutritional and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia, esculenta), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour and their blends. LWT Food Science and Technology 2012; 48: 59 – 68.
26. Suresh, C. and Samsher, D.K. Assessment of functional properties of different flours. African Journal of Agricultural Research 2013; 8(38): 4849 – 4852.
27. Ayinde F. A, Bolaji, O.T, Abdus-Salaam, R. B and Osidipe O. Functional properties and quality evaluation of “kokoro” blended with beniseed cake Sesame indicum. African Journal of Food Science 2012; 6(5): 117 – 123.
28. Adebowale, A.A., Adegoke, M.T., Sanni, S.A., Adegunwa, M.D. and Fetuga, G.O. Functional properties and biscuit making potentials of sorghum – wheat flour composite. American Journal of Food Technology 2012; 7(6): 372 – 379.
29. Moorthy, S.N. and Ramanujam, T. Variation in properties of starch in cassava varieties in relation to age of the crop. Starch Starke 1986; 38:58 – 61
30. Suresh, C., Samsher, S. and Kumari, D. Evaluation of functional properties of composite flours and sensorial attributes of the composite flour biscuit. Journal of Food Science and Technology 2015; 52(6): 3681 – 3688.
31. Loos, P.J., Hood, L.F. and Graham, A.J. Isolation and characterization of starch from breadfruit. Cereal Chemistry 1981; 58: 282 – 286.
32. James, S., Oloyede, O.O, Ocheme, O.B., Chima, C.E. and Agbejule, A.Y. Proximate, anti-nutrient and sensory properties of ogi, a millet based gruel, supplemented with treated African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Berth.) seed flour. African Journal of Food Science 2015; 9(3): 136 – 141.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details). This site cannot and does not contain professional advice. The information on this site is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals. We do not provide any kind of professional advice. The use or reliance of any information contained on this site or our mobile application is solely at your own risk. Under no circumstance shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site or our mobile application or reliance on any information provided on the site and our mobile application. We may publish articles without peer-review. Published articles of authors are open access. Authors hold the copyright and retain publishing rights without restrictions. Authors are solely responsible for their articles published in our journals. Publication of any information in authors’ articles does not constitute an endorsement by us. We make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability or completeness of any information that authors provided. more..

CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.