Formulation of a Complementary Flour with High Nutrient Density and Micronutrient Content

Formulation of a Complementary Flour with High Nutrient Density and Micronutrient Content

Chikondi Memory Liomba1, 2*, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga1 and Angela Adhiambo1
1Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
2Department of Agriculture Extension Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Lilongwe, Malawi.

International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

Child malnutrition is one of the biggest problems affecting about 195 million under five children in low income countries, such as Malawi. The most common forms of malnutrition are protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, zinc deficiency and Iron deficiency anemia. Complementary foods are generally cereal based and do not meet the nutrient requirement as recommended by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to improve iron and zinc contents of the usual traditional maize-based complementary porridge by blending it with high energy and micronutrient rich locally available foods. Raw materials used in the formulation of the complementary flour underwent simple household level food processing technologies such soaking, roasting and germination. The control complementary flour was prepared from 100% raw maize flour. Individual complementary flours were analyzed for proximate composition using standard methods while iron and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Pumpkins had significantly high amount of iron (68 mg/100g) and energy (460.03 Kcal) compared to all the ingredients. Zinc was significantly high in pigeon peas roasted at 160 0C for 40 minutes. The protein content in pigeon peas fluctuated with raw pigeon peas having 14.69 g/100g which was significantly (P=0.05) lower than the protein content of pigeon peas roasted at 40 and 15 minutes (21.25 g and 20.2 g/100g respectively). Significant (P=0.05) increase in the mean iron and zinc contents of germinated finger millet from 11.57 to 13.57 mg/100g were observed at the 48 and 72-hour germination time respectively as compared to 7.6 mg/100g observed in raw finger millet. After proximate composition four complementary porridge flours were developed by blending each of the analyzed flour in varied proportions. Linear programming was used to optimize nutrients of the formulated products to meet micronutrient and macronutrients requirements of the target group. The formulated flour combinations and the control were evaluated based on the macronutrient and micronutrients targets for a recommended nutrient intake daily ration of complementary food for the age group 6 to 24 months old children. The complementary flours in which millet, pumpkins and pigeon peas were incorporated provided significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of iron, zinc, energy, protein than the control. All four formulations were able to meet iron, zinc, protein, carbohydrate and energy recommended nutrient requirements for infants. However formulation CPV1 and CPV2 had higher nutritional value and nutrition density than the rest of the formulations. Therefore based on these results it can be concluded that complementary flour made from maize alone can be improved by incorporating millet, pigeon peas and pumpkins since they have shown to improve the amount of zinc, iron and protein which may in turn help reduce protein energy malnutrition and iron and zinc deficiencies.

Keywords: Iron deficiency; zinc deficiency; complementary flour; optimization; legumes; pumpkins, Finger millet; optimization

Abbreviations: PEM (protein energy malnutrition); CPV (cereal-pulse-vegetable), RNI (recommended nutrient intake); WHO (World health organization); RDA (Recommended daily intake)

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How to cite this article:
Chikondi Memory Liomba, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga, Angela Adhiambo. Development Of Multimix Composite Flour As Complementary Food For Infants In Malawi. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 2018; 2:11.  DOI: 10.28933/ijfnr-2018-06-1801


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