Background: Caregiver burden has negative effects on mental and physical health along with quality of life. Meanwhile, social and physical distancing protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic have created additional impacts on informal caregiving in a rapidly changing environment. Early research over the past year suggests that the pandemic has caused increased caregiver burden as well as caregiving intensity among these individuals. Purpose: Our primary purpose in this informational literature review is to describe the impacts of the pandemic on informal caregiver burden and the sudden shift in roles and responsibilities as a result of pandemic-related changes in caregiving. This review will describe emerging effects on various aspects of health among informal caregivers and explore the growing need to support unpaid caregiving during this time. Methods: A streamlined search was conducted to fit the scope of this review, with key terms determined to identify relevant publications. Common research databases and up-to-date mainstream resources were utilized. Notably, we focused on research published or released since March 2020, primarily rapidly reviewed studies, to align with the timing of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Results: Early research suggests that the pandemic has worsened caregiver burden and increased caregiving intensity and hours of care among unpaid, informal family caregivers. Reported health impacts include higher stress, pain, and depression, along with decreased social connectedness and quality of life. Notably, however, COVID-related research generally does not focus on the positive aspects of caregiving, such as its role as a source of purpose in life, creating an opportunity to explore ways to boost certain valuable personal resources among caregivers. Conclusions: Informal family caregivers face their own negative health outcomes and distress as a result of greater caregiver burden, intensity, and the changing landscape of caregiving during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Immediate policy and support recommendations should be…
As one ages, some degree of cognitive decline is expected. Despite this, declines in cognitive abilities and the possibility of dementia is a common concern among older adults. In response to these concerns, a variety of cognitive training programs have been developed that aim to improve or maintain cognitive functioning. Prior literature has shown mixed or limited findings on cognitive changes after implementation of cognitive training. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive training program designed for older adults with no to minimal cognitive decline. The current study included 17 participants who engaged in two one-hour cognitive training sessions each week for 12 weeks. Each session required participants to complete activities that targeted the following cognitive domains: attention, visual and verbal memory, visual spatial skills, processing speed and executive functioning, and language. These cognitive domains, along with depression and memory self-efficacy, were assessed prior to and immediately after completion of the program. Small to large effect sizes on the majority of cognitive outcome measures were observed following participation in the program. Small reductions in depressive symptoms were also found. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of a comprehensive cognitive training program for cognitively-intact older adults.
This subcritical concept is framed in a way that allows use in a single room for some electricity production purposes. It involves a tungsten casing and also helps using depleted uranium dust. The single series of anneals for closure and direct laying of the top opening window onto the left side of the tungsten casing make pressure work impossible ; it also allows for a relatively cheap production.
Ancient extinct life forms fossilized through volcanism in sedimented rivers and other plains of Mars
The use of rules laid in earlier articles of the author allows to isolate the remains of life forms on Mars. All of these life forms have perished in volcanic eruptions. Pyroclastic flows, mudslides and the lava fill-up of underwater caves are shown to have killed by surprise the animals. The violence of the event allows conservation of the remains, as the covering by tuf, lava, hot mud, allows the casting of rock molds. An early observation of a femur in 2014 was discarded as result of erosion. This finding comes together with a skull cast in stone. It is indeed a skull and a femur – this can be validated ex-post by crossing with the findings of the author in an earlier article and these new ones.
Characteristics of Children Aged <18 Years Hospitalized in Sidra Medicine with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Doha-Qatar, March 1-December 12, 2020
Most reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children aged
Marx and Weber’s Polar Opposing Theorical Concepts of Capitalism and Christianity: A Tribute to The Depth of Sociological Theory in the 21 Century
Abstract: Marx and Weber two German Sociologists with opposite social theories centered around Capitalism and Religion in Western Civilization. Context: This effort is the first in a series of articles designed to expose Sociology’s depth in theorical free social thought. The second article in this series will contrast “Conflict Theory” with “Functionalism”. Marx viewed modern capitalist society as an historical process of oppression and alienation. Indeed, labor is viewed as a commodity, Marx refers to this social conditions as Alienated or Estrange labor. Found in this social position humanity cannot experience a creative function; rather experiences oneself passively as the subject separated from the object. Therefore, the perversion of labor into a meaningless crippling productive force. Furthermore, Marx argued the nature of humanity is to transform, and change nature to fit human needs or “Species-Being”. Therefore, Humanity is the past, present and the future. As opposed to the species-nature of animal. Animal behavior is rooted in the internal repetition of activities, accepting what nature has to offer. However, alienated labor perverts’ human character as “species-being” into a means of existence, rather than a free, conscious creative activity. Moreover, humanity feels free only to act in a most animal function (rather than as a free creative activity decreasing humanities advantage over animals). Thus, productive life is species-life where humanity consciously transforms the outside world into ones’ self-identity. Lastly, private property is the all-summarized expression of alienated labor for humanity is transformed into a commodity, to be owned and used by the Power-elite. Marx labels this “The Theory of Surplus Value”. The equation located in “Surplus value” is as the value of “things” increase there is a direct decrease in the value of humanity. The end-product is always more valuable than the sum of its parts, which by logically includes the devaluation…
Appendicitis is a very common cause of acute abdomen. Most of the patient admit in surgical emergency. Diagnosis usually made clinically, sonography sometimes may be helpful. Regarding management there is still controversy exists. Developed country usually performed laparoscopy appendectomy while in developing country surgical management is still in debate. Different surgeons have different opinion either emergency open or laparoscopy appendectomy or interval appendectomy. Even in open appendectomy there is still debate between classical procedure vs small incision. This study favors single stitch surgery rather than classical and laparoscopy appendectomy. this case study supports even better cosmetic and outcome than laparoscopy appendectomy.
Gas in the Inferior Mesenteric Vein – successful non operative management of a rare complication of diverticulitis
Septic phlebitis (also known as pyelephlebitis) because of diverticulitis is a rare but important complication. Many previous cases have mandated urgent surgical management for fear of further deterioration. This case report details one of the first cases where septic phlebitis was successfully managed conservatively, and details important clinical lessons clinicians should be aware of.
Macrophage Activation Syndrome:A case series;From Sepsis to Malignancy: Early diagnosis and treatment
NTRODUCTION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or macrophage activation syndrome(MAS) is a syndrome of fulminant cytokine storm leading to multiorgan dysfunction and high mortality rate. HLH may be Familial or Primary(fHLH) and Secondary (sHLH).FHLH is due to mutation in gene coding for perforin or NK cell of CD8 lymphocytes. sHLH may be associated with hematological malignancies, autoimmune disorders like SLE,Still’s diseae, kawasaki disease, infections and sepsis of various etiology starting from bacteria ,viral protozoal ,fungal and zoonotic infection. Main presenting features are fever, hepatospleenomegly, cytopenia,high ferritin level, high serum triglyceride and haemophagocytosis in bone marrow spleen or lymphnode. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In this series we describe Five cases ,(two cases of SLE,one B-Cell lymphoma, one case of scrub typhus,one case of kleibsiella pneumoniae presenting as sepsis ) with their clinical, laboratory investigations, management and outcome with special correlation of ferritin level and HS score with the prognosis. All patients managed with I.V.Methyl prednisolone 30 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days and out come is assessed. CONCLUSION: MAS in SLE and sepsis is a life threatening unrecognised condition, early diagnosis and treatment can increase the survival rate by many folds . a drop of ferritin level by 15% after 48 hrs of treatment is a surrogate marker of good prognosis. From H scoring cut off value 169 corresponds to sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 86%.
Objectives: Describe vaccination coverage and measles incidence in Brazil from 2016 to 2019. Methods: Quantitative, descriptive and retrospective study of confirmed cases of measles and vaccination coverage in the last 04 years, in the regions of Brazil. The data were exported from epidemiological bulletins from all regions, made available by the Ministry of Health and State Health Secretariats. Immunization data were collected using Tabnet/DATASUS, and organized in Microsoft Office Excel® (2019). Results: During 2016-2017, Brazil did not report confirmed measles cases. In 2018, 10,322 cases were recorded, with a prevalence of 10.245 (99.25%) in the North, followed by the South 46 (0.44%) and Southeast 23 (0.22%). In 2019, 20,901 cases were recorded, with the Southeast region having the highest incidence, 18.426 (88.15%), followed by the South region with 1.468 (7.02%). Between 2016-2019, the vaccination average was 84.05%. In this period, the North region reached the lowest coverage, 75.79%, followed by the Northeast region, 80.31%. In 2018, the highest incidence of cases was observed in the North region, due to the lower vaccination coverage obtained in the last 4 years. In 2019, the majority of cases were in the Southeast region, because despite the satisfactory vaccination coverage, the disease spreads more easily in large urban centers. Conclusion: Despite the increase in vaccination campaigns, Brazil has not reached the minimum number of vaccinations, in the last 4 years, to obtain herd immunity, increasing the manifestation of the disease in the last 2 years.