Recent Articles

  • Burkitt Lymphoma of Central Nervous System in an elderly-patient: A new approach with a modified classic regimen

    Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is one of the high-grade lymphomas, characterized by a rapid growth. They are usually treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens, being normally chemo-sensitive, but at the expense of high toxicity secondary to treatment. Additionally, the compromise of the central nervous system (CNS) implies a major risk as well as greater toxicity, taking into account a worse clinical prognosis with a requirement of more intensive schemes to achieve control of the disease. This implies doubts in the management of older patients with BL with CNS compromise, in whom toxicity is a limitation to these therapies, and there are no other alternatives that offer better benefit in terms of less frequent or severe adverse events, with similar outcomes in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Therefore, clarifying cases such as the one we report below allows us to provide a therapeutic alternative for older or unfit patients, in whom the intention of treatment should be to seek a good tumor response, but without ignoring the potential toxicity of chemotherapy.

  • Outcome of surgical emergencies in COVID positive individuals- a Case series

    Introduction: This manuscript will dealt with the outcome of emergency surgeries in COVID19 positive individuals. We are under the second wave of COVID pandemic. The research is ongoing regarding the outcome of patients who are undergoing, surgical treatment with COVID Rt-PCR positivity or become COVID positive during early postoperative period. Materials and Methods: All the patients who attended the emergency department of a tertiary care centre were screened for COVID -19 by RT-pcR and the patients who are COVID positive but needed emergency surgical procedure were included in the study. A cohort of 49 patients who were COVID positive and needed emergency surgical procedure due to various causes were included in the study. Results:The causes of acute surgical emergencies were acute appendicitis, appendicular perforation, perforative peritonitis, obstructed/ strangulated inguinal hernia, intestinal obstruction, diabetic foot and perianal abscess. Most of the patients belong to the age group between 40 – 70 years. 63.8% were males. The mortality rate was 12.8%. More than one co-morbid condition was present in 8.5% of individuals. Most of the patients got discharged in 10 – 12 days. 40.4% have co morbid conditions like diabetes or hypertension. 8.5% had more than one co morbid conditions. Diabetes was present in 27.7% of cases Conclusion: The mortality was high during the postoperative period of COVID positive cases, extreme care and precaution should be taken to avoid pulmonary complications

  • Heat stroke and heat exhaustion among pilgrims: common signs and symptoms, laboratory profile and methods of managements

    Background: In the last few years, Hajj season is characterized by high temperature reached up to 46°C.Exposure to great hot environment accompanied with fatigue may result in different heat-related illnesses including heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Objectives: To investigate the types, symptoms, signs, laboratory parameters, associated chronic disease and medical management of heat illness experienced by pilgrims in the fields and emergency centers. Subjects and methods: It is an analytical cross sectional study conducted during Hajj season (2017-2018) including all patients exposed or attended the emergency departments or centers of management heat related medical problems in Ministry of Defense hospitals and centers in Makkah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A prepared checklist was used to collect data about demographic characteristics of patients, associated risk factors, signs and symptoms as well as data about managements of heat stroke and heat exhaustions. Results: The study included 73 patients diagnosed with either heat exhaustion (52; 71.2%) or heat stroke (21; 28.8%). Their age ranged between 30 and 80 years (57.8±12.7). Males represent 57.5% of them. History of vaccination against seasonal influenza and meningitis was observed among 60% of them.Majority of the patients (74%) exposed to heat for 2-4 hours. The most frequent encountered symptoms were headache (82.2%), extreme weakness (80.8%), and dizziness/vertigo (78.1%). Their body temperature ranged between 31.6-41.2 ˚C (37.4±1.7).Glasgow coma scale ranged between 10 and 15 (14.5±1.2). Dry tongue, sunken eyes, skin rash and complications were observed among 68.5%, 31.5%, 11% and 4.1% of them, respectively. Admission for two hours or more was reported among 20 cases (27.4%), with no significant difference between cases of heat stroke and those with heat exhaustion. Analgesics were given to 9 patients (12.3%); more significantly in cases of heat stroke (19% versus 9.6%), p=0.045. History of transfer was reported among 9 patients (12.3%);…

  • Social Media and Mental Health in Youth During COVID-19: A Narrative Review

    Social media effects on youth during COVID-19 have been studied in the context of excessive use and mental health. Although some positive effects have been reported including connecting and social support, the COVID-19 research has typically noted negative effects including sedentary behavior, limited social interaction, depression and anxiety. This narrative review of eighteen COVID-19 publications on social media effects on youth includes sections on prevalence, on effects and on mediators/moderators of those effects. The prevalence of social media use by youth during COVID-19 has varied between 5% and 97% across 22 countries as a function of location, quarantine/lockdown, and type of social media, although the overall prevalence has significantly increased by 27% during the pandemic and has averaged 38% across studies. The most popular social media have been Facebook, What’s App, Instagram and Twitter. The prevalence of mental health symptoms has also varied across countries but has averaged 27% for anxiety, 34% for depression and 35% for stress. Mediators for the relationships between excessive social media and mental health symptoms have included rumination, psychological capital, sense of control and active use and moderators have included mindfulness, academic burnout and “flow”. Limitations of this literature are its sampling of self-reports from university students via cross-sectional surveys and confounding variables including pre-existing psychopathology, lockdown conditions, and sedentary behavior. Research is needed on the specific reasons for excessive social media use (e. g. information seeking, social interaction and escape from negative feelings including loneliness and touch deprivation) to inform intervention protocols for reducing this addictive behavior and its negative consequences on mental health symptoms in youth.

  • Self-Efficacy and Political Deviant Behaviour in the Cameroonian Public Service

    This paper investigates the relationship between self-efficacy and deviant behaviour at work by cameroonian civil servants. The problem raised by this research is that of the practice of deviant political behavior at work by public officials in Cameroon. According to Robinson & Bennett (1997), this is administrative gossip; administrative favoritism, spreading rumors and blaming colleagues and / or users unnecessarily and without reason. The objective of this research is to show that a self-efficient employee does not practice deviant political behaviors at work. Such an objective is part of the research axis of the psychological and developmental sciences, precisely in the field of organizational and occupationnal psychology. The data collection method is the survey and the tool is the questionnary in the form of measurement scales. Simple random sampling yielded the sample of 500 participants. The self-efficacy scale is that of Sherer and Coll (2005) translated and adapted by Chambon (2013) and the deviance scale is that of Bennett and Robinson (2000). Data collection took place in Yaoundé and the analysis was descriptive and regressive. 70% of the participants in this research believe that the practice of deviant political behavior is a reality in public service Cameroon. HRI: β = 0.25; HR2: β = 0.21; HR3: β =0.22: these results show that the three hypotheses are not validated. P = 0.000 the hypothesis is significant. Our regression result based on data collected on a sample of 500 civil servants shows that a self-efficient employee can produce deviant political behavior at work. A self-efficient employee can also produce deviant political behavior at work.

  • Laparoscopic approach for pancreato-splenic abscess from disseminated melioidosis: Surgical outcome and review of literature

    Melioidosis is a severe systemic infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. It commonly affects the lungs, liver and kidneys. Pancreatic and splenic abscess from melioidosis is rare, with few reports in the literature. We present a series of 4 patients with disseminated melioidosis of pancreas and spleen who required surgical intervention. A MEDLINE database review was conducted. Relevant publications were evaluated and demographic data, clinical, radiological findings as well as management options were collected. We found 10 case reports describing this clinical condition. In our series, median age was 57. Median operative time 260 minutes. All four patients failed trial of antibiotic therapy and required surgery. Three underwent distal pancreatosplenectomy and one underwent splenectomy alone. Laparoscopic distal pancreatosplenectomy was successful in two patients. Median length of stay 11.5 days. No post-operative complications and mortality reported. Surgery is indicated in failed medical therapy and laparoscopic approach is safe and feasible.

  • Aromatherapy: Prophylactic and Therapeutic Approach to Diseases of the Respiratory System

    Infectious diseases are a significant public health challenge due to the increasing recognition of new infectious agents and the resurgence of infections until recently controlled. These infectious illnesses constitute many hospital admissions, mainly respiratory focus, which requires high-cost therapy. One of the strategies to prevent injuries leading to hospitalization is reducing the body’s inflammatory response. Thus, aromatherapy seems to be a useful adjuvant therapeutic tool due to the essential oils’ synergistic action with proven anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Hence, this study proposes an integrated review of the literature on aromatherapy as a tool to be used in prophylaxis and therapy in respiratory system disorders. After passing the criteria of exclusion and content analysis, a set of 124 articles narrowed to 44 articles that support the anti-inflammatory properties of the sesquiterpenes, such as the farnesol. This substance treats the respiratory system and is present in Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, and Rosa damascena. Caryophyllene and its derivatives are present in Syzygium aromaticum, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cannabis sativa. Besides, α-bisabolol and chamazulene present in Matricaria recutita and Achillea millefolium. Other oils have antibiotic properties that act against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterias according to their constitution’s complexity and interaction with these microorganisms. In this context, some species such as Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus hystrix, Cymbopogon Citratus, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus odorata, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifólia, Lavandula intermedia, Melaleuca leucadendra, Mentha piperita, Pinus sylvestris, Syzygium aromaticum, and Thymus vulgaris are in the spotlight. Several studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated the potential use of essential oils alone or combined with oils from other species as a strategy for the prevention of respiratory diseases and potentiation of standard therapies. This approach is possible due to the synergistic effects of substances with bioactive potential such as sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and phenylpropanoids.

  • Isolated metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in the right atrium: a case observed in a university hospital in West Africa (Bouake, Ivory Coast)

    Intracardiac metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rare and have a poor prognosis. We report an observation in a West African university hospital in a 39-year-old black patient admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical examination noted signs of cirrhosis, namely hepatocellular failure, portal hypertension, melena and signs of right heart failure against a background of deterioration in general condition (WHO-3). The CT scan showed a focal hepatic lesion with arterial enhancement and portal lavage compatible with HCC and a right intracardiac mass taking contrast. Doppler echocardiography confirmed the presence of a large heterogeneous mass occupying almost the entire right atrium. Palliative and symptomatic treatment was instituted in the patient improving his clinical condition. His death occurred two months after his release. The intracardiac localization of HCC, although rare, is not exceptional and of appalling prognosis. It should be sought in the assessment of the extension of HCC, especially in the presence of signs of cardiac involvement.

  • Astaxanthin: The possible effects of this carotenoid on disease, inflammation and aging control. A meta-analysis

    Astaxanthin (ATX), a red pigment that belongs to the xanthophyll subclass of carotenoids, has a strong antioxidant ability and can eliminate singlet oxygen (O2-) as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation. ATX can also prevent mitochondrial dysfunction by permeating and co-localizing within the mitochondria and inhibit the release of cytochrome c resulting from mitochondrial permeabilization and, thus, prevent mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death. Due to its antioxidant capacity and modulating properties of cell signaling, ATX exhibits a variety of beneficial biological activities among them protection against UV damage, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, metabolic syndrome (MS) relief, cardioprotective effects, antidiabetic activity, prevention of neuronal damage, anti-aging and anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate what has been published about ATX in PubMed/Medline between 2020-2021. The results were distributed in four Tables as follows: Table 1-Publication types; Table 2- Proposal for evaluating the article in vivo; Table 3- Cells markers used in clinical studies in vivo; Table 4- Astaxanthin in human clinical trial. We could observe that the interest of the scientific community has been growing in relation to the benefits of ATX. The results presented in the articles evaluated in this meta-analysis showed us that AXT is already a reality as an option in treatments for various diseases, including glaucoma, heart and vascular injury, type 2 diabetes and fatty liver. We conclude that ATX may not only be a promising nutraceutical as an ally to alternative treatments of the pathologies mentioned above, but also as a powerful prophylactic in elderly individuals in prevention of diseases associated with aging.

  • Microbiological Analysis and pH Determination of Drinking Water Samples from Public Schools

    Water is considered a finite natural resource and one of the essential elements of life. It is used in various work activities such as agriculture, industry, livestock, public supply, energy generation, among others [15]. According to SPERLING (2006) [38], only 2.493% of the water on the planet is suitable for the consumption of humans and animals and 0.0007% of the water accessible for consumption is present in the atmosphere, rivers and lakes. It is estimated that more than one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated water, as its supply is not made on an equal basis due to population growth, economic activities and uneven distribution contrasted with different populations. between rural and urban areas [3, 21,33,]. Problems related to water shortages in the metropolitan regions of Brazilian states are increasingly present in everyday life, and can be attributed to factors involving administrative processes, such as the high cost of drinking water treatment, pollution of water tables, increased demand for water. consumption and climatic factors. In this sense, the use of water for poor quality consumption is an alternative for regions experiencing shortages and has a direct impact on the health of individuals, especially workers and students, as about 80% of the infectious and parasitic diseases that affect developing countries are due to poor quality water, directly impacting the individual’s health [10,17,18,28,36,37]. The water potability standards in Brazil are described in Ordinance GM / MS No. 2,914, of December 12, 2011, which portrays the main physical-chemical and microbiological quality control processes aimed at ensuring water safety and quality. for human consumption [5-8,42].In relation to water-borne infectious-parasitic diseases, their main route of transmission is via the oro-fecal route, that is, ingestion of water contaminated by excreta in drinks or food. According to PEIL et al (2015) [29], the main…