Background: COVID-19 pandemic mitigation requires evidence-based strategies. Because COVID-19 can spread via respired droplets, most US states mandated mask use in public settings. Randomized control trials have not clearly demonstrated mask efficacy against respiratory viruses, and observational studies conflict on whether mask use predicts lower infection rates. We hypothesized that statewide mask mandates and mask use were associated with lower COVID-19 case growth rates in the United States. Methods: We calculated total COVID-19 case growth and mask use for the continental United States with data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. We estimated post-mask mandate case growth in non-mandate states using median issuance dates of neighboring states with mandates. Results: Earlier mask mandates were not associated with lower total cases or lower maximum growth rates. Earlier mandates were weakly associated with lower minimum COVID-19 growth rates. Mask use predicted lower minimum but not lower maximum growth rates. Growth rates and total growth were comparable between US states in the first and last mask use quintiles during the Fall-Winter wave. These observations persisted for both natural logarithmic and fold growth models and when adjusting for differences in US state population density. Conclusions: We did not observe association between mask mandates or use and reduced COVID-19 spread in US states. COVID-19 mitigation requires further research and use of existing efficacious strategies, most notably vaccination.
DEATH SURVEILLANCE IN PERNAMBUCO: ADDRESSING THE SENSITIVITY BETWEEN HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE AND THE MORTALITY INFORMATION SYSTEM
Objective: Describe the sensitivity of notification and investigation of deaths eligible in the Mortality Information System and occurred in hospitals that make up the State Hospital Epidemiological Surveillance Network of Pernambuco. Methods: Fetal, infant, maternal and women of childbearing deaths that occurred in 2015 in the 29 hospitals of the State Network VEH/PE were selected. For analysis, the notification, investigation and updating of the SIM WEB module was considered, relating the SIM bases and spreadsheets of the VEH/PE Network and sensitivity was estimated by the capture and recapture method. Results: 54,0% of the deaths in Pernambuco came from the VEH/PE Network. 80,0% of infant and maternal deaths were reported by the VEH/PE Network immediately. In the set of analyzed deaths, the capture and recapture method estimated a slight loss in capture, with a sensitivity of 99,9% for both sources of record. And, in the investigation, greater sensitivity, for the VEH/PE spreadsheet (98,6%). The SIM had a lower magnitude (2,9%) of underreporting in the collection and a higher proportion (43,3%) of underreporting in the information from the hospital investigation source in the SIM WEB module. Conclusion: These results can contribute to reducing the underreporting of capture and information on hospital investigation in the SIM WEB module and allow knowledge about the causes and circumstances that determined or favored the occurrence of death in order to analyze the avoidability, planning and evaluation of maternal and child health actions.
Objective: To verify in te literature what the articles refer to about teleodontology in Covid-19 times. Methods: This is a bibliographic study, critical Reading of a scientific article, like a narrative review carried out through research of scientific articles in the SCIELO, PUBMED and LILACS databases, based on the keywords: Covid-19; Dentistry; Teleodontology. Results: Teleodontology was approved in Brazil, by the Federal Council of Dentistry, in resolution CFO-226, of June 4, 2020, which regulates the practice of distance dentistry (CFO, 2020), however teleconsultations are prohibited (virtual diagnosis) and teleprescriptions. The literature is unanimous in recognizing that the new social, educational and assistance reality favors the use of teleodontology as a complemente to traditional teaching methods and resource capable of assistin patient care, contributing to the improvement and controlo f oral health, care integral and humanized mediated by technology. However, in Brazil, technology is still not available to everyone, which may result in limiting learning, assistance and aggravating existing social inequality. Conclusion: Teleodontology proved to be a valuable technological tool and can be excelente, allowing interaction and integration, in the teaching/learning process, as well as in teleassistance, provided that all actors have access to the internet and know how to use it.
Objectives: The research objective was to present the main techniques for identifying pathogenic microorganisms and the application of new technologies for the clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Methods: It was made a search for free and recent journals available online in the databases of Pubmed (National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes), Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences), and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online), based on keywords related to the proposed theme. Results: From the researched literature, it was possible to verify that conventional techniques, despite their limitations, are still widely used for the identification and microbial characterization. However, in the last decades, molecular methods have been widely inserted in the laboratory routine seeking to increase the capacity to detect infectious agents with high sensitivity, specificity, speed, and low cost. Among the various techniques, amplification of DNA sequences is highlighted by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and other variations of PCR. In addition to these, new technologies have been developed, such as new generation sequencing (NGS) and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization-time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Conclusion: The development of new technologies that allow rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and low-cost microbial identification, it is of great relevance for clinical microbiology, and consequently, for public health.
Association Between Perceived Academic Stress And Suicide Behavior Among College Students From Pernambuco
OBJECTIVES: To verify whether there is an association between perceived academic stress and suicidal behavior in young people in the university community. METHOD: Cross-sectional study approved by ethics committee (n°2,581,563), with a sample of 609 undergraduates from the Federal University of Pernambuco from: health, human sciences and exact sciences from 17 to 50 years. For the collection, we used: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Questionnaire of Academic Experiences reduced version, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The data were tabulated in the SPSS program in version 21.0. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used for analysis, considering a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Of the sociodemographic data, 34.6% (n=211) were in the age group of 21 to 23 years, the majority were female, 64.5% (n=393). There was a significant difference in economic organization, the university students of human sciences presented lower per capita family income than health students (p
Objective: To demonstrate the importance of Fact-Checking tools in combating health fake news in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Quantitative descriptive study, conducted during the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic. Fake news were accounted and identified through the website chequeado.com, registered in the Agência Lupo and Aos Fatos checking platforms, belonging to the International Fact-Checking Network, an international understanding with recognized news verification methodologies. The registered news originated from the social media/networks Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram, Twitter, and websites. They were later classified according to content in Conspiracy Theory, Prevention/Treatment/Cure, Authorities/Agency Measures, Situation of a city, state and country, Causes, Symptoms, Public Figure and False Context. Results: 529 fake news about coronavirus were obtained, of these 306 were from the Agência Lupo platform, and 223 from the Aos Fatos platform. A total of 99 (18.72%) fake news were about Conspiracy Theory 99 (18.72%) Authorities/Agency Measures and 98 (18.53%) False Context. As for the origin of fake news 382 (72.21%) were from Facebook and 67 (12.66%) from Whatsapp. Conclusion: The Fact-Checking tools in combating misinformation on social networks are important because they deny false news, unlikely allegations, and no justification related to the Covid-19 pandemic. These check sites alert social networks, policymakers, and the public to create measures that educate and protect the integrity and health of individuals and prevent them from falling victim to misinformation.
Objective: To describe the experience of undergraduate students in the process of territorialization of some micro areas in Recife. Methods: Work based on academic practices of the discipline Occupational Therapy in Public Health – UFPE, in the 2nd semester of 2019, where students follow the professional performance in Primary Care. Among the activities carried out by the Extended Nucleus of Family Health and Primary Care, where the occupational therapist is inserted, there is the territorialization that, in this experience, took place in two meetings, specifically in some micro areas of the Health District VIII. Results: During the walk in the territory, the Community Health Agents presented the history of the community and reported that the community initially had a very industrialized profile. Subsequently, families began to establish themselves and take ownership of the place where they live until today, with several establishments such as schools, community spaces, squares, etc. that strengthen their identity The morbidities that most affect the elderly, young and male population are, respectively, chronic diseases, Sexually Transmitted Infections and infectious diseases. Territorialization is important in the process of planning interdisciplinary interventions and through it, the biopsychosocial dimensions are recognized and bring necessary discussions for all levels of care (COUTINHO, 2017). Conclusion: After the experience of Territorialization, it was possible to understand part of the complexity that is the territory, as well as to identify the main demands of the visited micro areas. Together with the NASF team, the occupational therapist can facilitate health education activities not only with the population itself, but also with professionals from the Family Health Unit.
Objective: Evidence that the inflammation, infection, necrosis and pain present in osteonecrosis may be related to the use of bisphosphonates in oncology. Methods: It’s a clinical case report of mandibular osteonecrosis, female, 73 years old, treated and under medical and multiprofessional oncology follow-up, at the Oncology Center of the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital of the University of Pernambuco, for control of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast (Anatomopathological115134) and bilateral bone and lung metastases. Currently, using Faslodex 250mg – 02 ampoules and Zometa (bisphosphonate). Results: With a extraction history performed during the use of bisphosphonate, and with a removable upper and lower total dental prosthesis, attended the Dental Service of aforementioned Oncology Center, presenting bone exposure in the anterior mandible region and complaining of local pain. After clinical and radiographic evaluation, the diagnosis of osteonecrosis was confirmed, characterized by necrosis, pain and bone infection. Considering the mandibular clinical and radiographic condition, and the oncological condition, the Oral Care’s Standard Operational Protocol for Osteonecrosis was initiated, adapted from the Dentistry Service of the National Cancer Institute, but without the Low Power Laser. After 4 months, clinical improvement was noted and the absence of painful symptoms was reported. In addition, it follows the Oral Care Protocol and is being followed up at the aforementioned specialized Service. Conclusion: Invasive surgical procedures and local trauma should be avoided during therapy with bisphosphonates, as they can favor the development of osteonecrosis, in individuals who don’t have oral metastasis and have never undergone radiotherapy in the jaws.
Population Structure of the Macroalgae in the Reef Plateau of Piedade Beach (Jaboatão Dos Guararapes-PE)
Objective: This work analyzes the structure of macroalgae populations on the reef plateau of Praia de Piedade (08º 10 ’S and 34º 56’W), south coast of Pernambuco state. Methodology: The Relevés method was used. Collections were carried out from January to March and May to July 2005 at stations E1 and E2, in the region between tides. Results: The following parameters were observed: the total number of species (T), the covering of each taxon (Ri), total covering (Rt), diversity (H ‘) and equitability (J). 56 infrageneric taxon were identified, being 31 Rhodophyta, 7 Ochrophyta and 18 Chlorophyta. The total coverage varied between 25.58% at station E2 in June and 85.54% at station E1 in July. The diversity varied from 1.74 to 2.7 bits.cel-¹ in the two periods. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the macroalgae populations on the reef plateau have medium diversity and are formed by fouling, erect and epiphytic strata.
Objectives: To determine the existence of a pattern of women most frequently victims of physical violence in Brazil over a period of 10 years. Methods: Data from the DATASUS platform were collected on the records of domestic, sexual and other violence, registered by physical violence against female persons between 2009 and 2018. Data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System on characteristics of the violent act against women were also collected. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics was also used to collect data from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). For bibliographic reference, the descriptors “Domestic and Sexual Violence against Women”, “Domestic Violence” and “Domestic Violence” were searched on virtual data basis and Brazilian articles that were published within the period of the present study were included. Results: There is a continuous and rapid increase in the first half of the study period, with a slight deceleration between 2014 and 2016, followed by a new jump in records from 2017. As for race, the largest numbers are white women, 348428, and browns, 308902. Black women represent 68.25% of the total records of domestic, sexual and other violence, with 8.3% of the total records of physical violence. Conclusion: It is possible to estimate that black women are not making complaints or possibly are not being seen with due care to make them. As it is data that depends on denunciation, which is often not carried out, the results need consideration regarding assertiveness and reflection of reality.