Recent Articles

  • The Analysis of Frequency Terms Used in Rating Scales

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a contemporary analysis of frequency terms commonly used in rating scales that are based on differing degrees of frequency with which events happen. A total of 20 frequency terms was analyzed using empirical data as well as employing a lexical database. Use of clearly separable frequency terms is imperative for the construction of a set of rating scales as an effective measuring instrument.

  • Gravity defined precisely with quarks – squaring the circle to achieve fine description of black hole physics, and understanding the formation of key constellations

    Gravity is redefined by drawing on the author’s works and inputting quark physics in a way consistent with it ; it allows to better understand black hole dynamics, black hole eruptions and some constellation patterns in the sky (the Scorpio, Ursa Minor and Ursa Major as well as Cassiopea for instance). The concept of gravitational lensing is rapidly differenciated from black hole eruptions. Some final remarks underline a possible threat for missions to the Moon.

  • Impact of age on the characteristics and medical care of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with direct-acting antivirals

    Aim: Chronic hepatitis C is more severe in elderly patients. In France, Direct Acting Antiviral therapy must be implemented via multidisciplinary team meetings in regional reference centers. This study aimed to define the impact of age on hepatitis C characteristics and medical care types across three groups: 70-yo. Methods: All patients with treated hepatitis C virus mono-infection during 8 to 24 weeks were included. Group comparison was based on 21 hepatitis C characteristic and medical care variables. Results: Male predominance decreased in >50-yo (59.7% vs. 72.5%, p 70-yo (36.2%, p 50-yo (27.8% vs. 51.9%, p=0.02) and increase in transfusion and nosocomial infection to 30% in >70-yo. Advanced fibrosis increased in >50-yo (57.5% vs. 41.5%, p 70-yo affected. Psychiatric comorbidity incidence was halved in >70-yo (7.1% vs. 14.8%, p


    Purpose: To achieve a relationship between oil machinery fluid (OMF) and the damage this fluid produces in several eye structures. In neuro-oncology patients, we know there are several parasellar tumors; one of them is the craniopharyngiomas that can produce a cystic structure containing an oily material. It has been denominated as an oil machinery fluid (OMF); this fluid has not yet been widely studied. It is a widely held view that it produces toxic effects in the brain and other structures. This paper aims to see the toxicity of the OMF when administered directly in the brain and the changes produced in the rats’ eyes. Methods: 30 Wistar rats were divided into three groups, control, sham and experimental; the oil machinery fluid was obtained directly from human patients during surgery. The oil machinery fluid was administered to the rat thalamus by stereotaxic surgery. The subjects were under observation after the surgery for five weeks and sacrificed once the observation period ended. Finally, immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue recovered from the eyes. Results: We observed that in the experimental group, there was an increase in glucose levels, the coloration of the eyes changed to a pinkish color, the lenses changed opacity, there were histological changes in the retina, and a reduction of the diameter of the optic nerve in this group in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: All the results observed in this model can be seen in human patients with craniopharyngiomas and diabetes. They are leading us to think that the oil machinery fluid alone can produce ocular changes by damaging several structures by the toxicity created by this fluid.

  • Psychiatric disorders and hepatitis C treated with direct-acting antivirals in a French reference center

    HCV can cause psychiatric disorders. It is crucial to re-evaluate them with direct-acting antiviral treatment (DDAs), since the interferon-based treatments of the past were capable of causing identical psychiatric adverse effects. A system of multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings was implemented in France in December 2014 in regional reference centers with the aim of controlling the prescription and administration of these new treatments, along with optimizing how the patients undergoing these treatments are followed up. Our study sought to compare the characteristics and type of medical care received for chronic hepatitis C in patients with (PSY+ group) and without (PSY- group) psychiatric disorders using data from MDT meetings in the Alsace area of France collected from 2015 to 2019. All included patients were mono-infected and treated with DAAs in successive rounds between 2015 and 2019, as per recommendations from the French Hepatology Society. We compared the two groups (PSY+ and PSY-) based on 21 variables regarding the characteristics and medical care of hepatitis C. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 15% of patients. On multivariate analysis, a positive correlation was found between them and drug use (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.40-3.98; p=0.001), excessive alcohol consumption (OR: 1.92; 95%CI: 0.98-3.69; p=0.05), smoking (OR: 1.81; 95%CI: 1.09-2.98; p=0.02), and incidence of drug interactions (OR: 3.94; 95%CI: 2.15-7.17; p

  • The clitoris in the chromosomes, and immunity – an essay

    This paper underlines scientific arguments on the clitoris’ contribution to health and to immunity in particular. Sexology misses key elements that reduce the sexual abilities of men, and it tries to bridge the gap with simple arguments, chromosomal and biophysical.


    Objectives: Gout has a predilection for the foot and ankle, but the impact of gout has limited presence in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise existing literature which has investigated the characteristics of foot and ankle involvement in gout; identifying consensus and highlighting areas for further study. Methods: Studies were included if they were published in English and involved participants over 18 years of age with gout, and presented original findings relating to outcome measures associated with the foot and ankle. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified version of the Quality Index Tool. Results. Of 707 studies identified, 16 met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The mean (range) quality score was 68.1% (38.9%-88.9%). Compared to controls, participants with gout reported higher levels of activity limitation, foot-related pain and disability and walked more slowly. Plain radiography, dual-energy Computer Tomography and diagnostic ultrasound consistently demonstrated pathological features of gout in the first metatarsophalangeal joint and Achilles tendon. However, studies offered limited quality, particularly around recruitment strategies, validity and potential impact of confounding factors, making definitive statements difficult. Conclusions: This systematic review highlights the negative impact of gout on the structure and function of the foot and ankle causing significant impairment and disability. To effectively guide management, improvements in methodological quality are recommended.

  • Cardiac Metastatic Involvement in Lung Cancer – Cardiac Metastatic Involvement

    Lung cancer is the second most common solid tumour and the first in mortality worldwide. Important progress has been reached in recent years in this pathology, focusing its treatment on histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Cardiac metastatic involvement consists in a severe clinical entity with increasing incidence due to better radiological techniques and longer survival of lung cancer. It requires special care and attention from many specialists. Clinical review about cardiac involvement secondary to lung cancer is provided, focused on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnoses and treatment. Better understanding about cancer natural history is needed to offer the best treatment and care. Condensed abstract Cardiac metastatic involvement consists in a severe clinical entity with increasing incidence due to better radiological techniques and longer survival of lung cancer. It requires special care and attention from many specialists. Clinical review about cardiac involvement secondary to lung cancer is provided, focused on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnoses and treatment.

  • Unexpected Combined Double Posterior and Anterior Approach to Treat Thoracic Disc Herniation: a Case Report

    Introduction: Although frequently observed in magnetic resonance images, symptomatic thoracic disc herniations are rare. Surgical treatment is indicated when patients suffer from functional symptoms with no response to medical treatment, when neurologic symptoms appear or worsen or in the event of myelopathy. Posterolateral approaches are commonly accepted as the treatment for lateral and mediolateral disc herniations and non-calcified medial herniations. On the other hand, anterior approaches have been accepted to treat gigantic calcified medial disc herniations. Case presentation: This case report presents on a 57-year-old female patient suffering from thoracolumbar pain and impairment. The magnetic resonance study showed images compatible with a posteromedial T12-L1 disc herniation that, after medical treatment failure, required surgical treatment. Initially, a posterior approach was performed, resulting in the immediate postoperative period in motor and sensitive deficit of the lower left limb, so a surgical reintervention was performed using an anterior approach, obtaining good clinical and functional results. Conclusion: Thoracic disc herniations are uncommon. Surgical indication is decided in the presence of neurologic symptoms. Neurologic injury is a common complication due to the lesion’s characteristics and it can also be secondary to the surgical procedure. An adequate election of the surgical approach may minimize neurologic injuries.

  • Celiac disease presenting as abnormal atrial rhythm resolving after gluten-free diet

    We describe a case of a teenager who presented with palpitations and abnormal low atrial rhythm. Celiac Disease (CD) serology, sent due to low ferritin, was positive and gastroscopy confirmed CD diagnosis. Both palpitations and abnormal rhythm resolved after gluten-free diet with normalization of CD serology.