Public Health

  • Nutritional Status of Children and Youth in Accompanied MEC/ SESU Project of UFPE

    To evaluate the nutritional status of children and adolescents monitored in MEC / SESu UFPE project. Cross-sectional descriptive study in Centro de Revitalização e Revalorização da Vida, in the community of Bode, Recife / PE, from August to September 2015. A total of 35 children and adolescents and observed 18 % overweight, being higher in males (22). A high waist circumference was found in 22 % male, 8 % female. For weight / age and height / age was not found deficits nor surpluses in the sample.

  • Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards the Care of Patients Living With HIV/AIDS

    The Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus (AIDS) is one of the most significant Public Health problems confronting the human race. This study explored the knowledge and attitude of nursing students in a tertiary health institution towards the care of patients who are living with HIV/AIDS by employing a quantitative & descriptive design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 165 students who have had contact hours of lectures on the subject matter as well as been exposed to care of patients in the clinical areas. Results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at a df of 0.05. Findings revealed that 147 (89.1%) of the respondents have good knowledge of HIV/AIDS and are aware of the universal safety precautions; 116 (70.3%) feel protected using the universal safety precautions. However, 107 (64.8%) respondents strongly agree that being exposed to HIV infection is a major source of concern, while 85 (51.5%) of the respondents strongly support the idea that patients living with HIV/AIDS should not be admitted into the same ward with patients suffering from other disease conditions. The study recommends that all patients should be regarded as potential HIV carriers until proven otherwise due to the multifarious nature of the disease. Health workers are also reminded to adhere strictly to the universal precaution and the AIDS policy guidelines in the management of HIV/AIDS patients at all times.

  • First aid: Level of knowledge of relatives in emergencies in burn in Palestine

    First aid is the initial assistance or treatment given at the site of accident to someone who is injured or suddenly taken ill, before the arrival of ambulance. Objective: To assess the general knowledge, of relative for burn first aid, and to know the way of use to first aid for burns., and to evaluate the needs of society for program first aid Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in main governmental hospital contain burn unite in Palestine during the one year January 2018 to 31 December 2018 with burns any percent A representative sample of Palestinian parents who live in west bank and came to family emergency department in hospital was included. Result: A total of 150 participants comprising 23.3 males and 76.7 females with age of participant under 40 years were included. The majority (58%) were educated up to school or higher. most sours of information about first aid from doctors and nurses, the second source internet and TV and radio. most of participants mot take first aid course previously. 66% of participants use “cool running water in the first aid, 66.7% of participants not correct answer about Duration of cooling. 71% of participants answer incorrect answer how to deal with Scenario of fire burn wound, most of participants use Using traditional therapy for first aid, and Use toothpaste or tomato or other things. Conclusion: people need more training in the first aid especially in burn first aid is a simple, cheap, and accessible means of managing burns initially.

  • Relationship between Patients Perception of Recovery, Distance to Health Facility and Tuberculosis Treatment Default in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    With the current launch of End TB Strategy by World Health Organization, this is a global call to reduce Tuberculosis death by 95percent and tuberculosis incidence by 90 percent by the year 2035. It becomes imperative to investigate some factors that may hinder the achievement of this goal and find solution to these limiting factors. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of distance to Direct Observation Treatment (DOT) centre on one hand and patients’ perception of improved prognostic outcome on tuberculosis treatment default. A random sample of 150 tuberculosis patients on treatment between May – August 2016 attending different health centers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria were interviewed. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires from consenting TB patients. Chi-square statistical technique at 5 percent level of significance was used to test the null hypothesis of no relationship. Results indicated that 83 of the 150 TB patients defaulted in their treatment regimen, giving a default rate of 55.3 percent. Residential distance to health /DOT center was statistically associated with Tuberculosis (TB) treatment default, default increased with travel distance between patients’ residence and treatment center (X2 = 16.7003; df = 2; p < 0.001). Also, patients’ experience of disappearance of signs and symptoms as evidence of improved prognosis (perception of recovery) of TB illness was statistically associated with TB treatment default (X2 = 12.5468, df = 4, P = 0.014 ). This study emphasized the need for suitable specific measures for reducing treatment non-compliance as well as proper and repeated motivation of patients during treatment e.g. referring patients to nearby DOT centers, improving contact and default tracing, DOTS expansion and consolidation etc.

  • Semblances of “aangdan (organ donation)” with “kanyadan (gift of a maiden)”under hindu marriage

    This article seeks to draw parallels between various rituals and practices of the Indian wedding and the concept of organ donation and transplantation. The purpose of this article is to make it easier for the layman to relate to the concept of organ donation and transplantation. The article attempts to liken “Kanyadan” (giving away of a daughter in marriage) and “Aangdan” (organ donation); makes comparisons between the two using parameters of legal age, importance of love, search for a suitable match, appointment of middle men, financial investments and legal penalties etc. The article equates traditional match making on the basis of religion with the blood group matching in organ donation and transplantation. It further links the guna milap (Matching of fate lines) of the prospective bride and groom with that of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matching in organ donation and transplantation. It also highlights the significance of ensuring compatibility with internal environment irrespective of best selected matches in both the cases. The engagement ceremony to grant social approval to a marriage is equated with socio-legal approvals by “Authorization Committees” for organ donation and transplantation. Geography or spatial proximity also plays a crucial role in facilitating a marriage as well as organ transplant. The article also concludes that a combination of sadness and jubilation is common in both these events. The post-event management in both the cases is a roller coaster ride – full of apprehensions and anxieties – and needs more investments in terms of money, emotions and care. The two however differ on the infrastructure issue; while it’s easy to perform “Kanyadan” at any place by priests or pundits, availability of infrastructure and manpower is restricted in case of “Aangdan”. The author also draws parallel between some unusual marriages and unusual organ donation and transplantations and warns people against…

  • Considering Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Conceptions of Health

    Drawing on the salutogenic, or ‘origins of health’ framework, this article explores the health and well-being conceptions of urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and identifies individual and community health-enabling strategies employed to support their health and well-being. This qualitative study included 12 focus groups with 83 predominantly Indigenous Australian participants of Work It Out, a chronic disease self-management and rehabilitation program in South East Queensland. The focus groups explored meanings of health and well-being as well as strategies used to keep healthy and well. The findings indicate that urban Indigenous Australians participants view health as a balance between physical, psychological, socio-emotional and environmental factors and are active engagers in health enhancing behavior. This study provides new insights into the health and well-being conceptions of urban Indigenous Australians at risk of suffering from a chronic disease and reveals a unique view of health and well-being. Understanding how urban Indigenous Australians conceptualize health and well-being will contribute to the evidence base to inform culturally responsive public health programs and policy.

  • Community Based Management of Malaria: exploring the capacity/performance of Community Based Agents and their motivation

    Background: The use of antimalarial drugs and the prevention of man and vector contact remain the major control and prevention strategy of malaria until the availability of effective and safe vaccine. In Africa, one of the major strategies to malaria control and prevention is the home based malaria strategy through which trained community drug distributors identify and provide antimalarial drugs to children under five years with fever. This research aims at exploring the capacity, performance, and motivation of CBAs in Tamale Metropolis, Northern region, Ghana Methodology: A Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among 104 CBAs who were trained and given logistical support to assess and treat children less than five years with malaria presumptively at home. Participants were selected randomly and represented urban, peri-urban and rural settings. Results: 96.2% of respondents identified malaria by presence of fever while 92.3% used fever as a cardinal sign. More than 82% of participants provided early treatment in all the three location. 64.4% of participants administered the correct number of days while 32.7% administered daily doses correctly, only 24% of CBAs knew that the Antimalarial medications they use have some side effects. 77.9% knew when to repeat drug dose when child vomit or when parent forget to give the dose. Most of the participant had registers and were reporting monthly, however, only 26.2% are somewhat motivated by some of the existing of the motivational packages. Conclusion: The overall performance and skills demonstrated by the CBAs are encouraging in all the three settings but documentation and reporting remains a challenge. Community based initiatives should be strengthened and promoted to provide homemade solutions in saving lives especially in resources limited settings. If community interventions such as community drug distribution of antimalarial drugs are needed to improving access to malaria prevention, much attention…

  • Study of Knowledge about Hypertension in Young Adult Population of Age Group 20 to 40 Years in an Urban Slum of Mumbai

    Context: Hypertension is a growing health problem throughout the World. There is paucity of data on awareness about hypertension, its causes and related complications in general population. Awareness about hypertension in younger population can prevent its development in later age. Thus to prevent & control the problem of hypertension there is a need for increasing knowledge and awareness about hypertension in younger population. Aim of this study is to assess knowledge about hypertension in younger population using a knowledge questionnaire. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study amongst 450 participants in the age group of 20 to 40 years using systematic sampling technique with a random start. Data was collected using a questionnaire form that was devised relevant to the study. Conclusion: Among 450 participants, 264 i.e. 58.7% participants had poor knowledge about hypertension (score < 7) and 186 i.e 41.3% good knowledge about hypertension (score > 7).