Public Health

  • Drug Induced-Stevens Johnson Syndrome

    Background: Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is one of the severe forms of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Despite it is rare, SJS is highly weakening and life-threatening illness commonly occurs as a result of medications, which is characterized by fever and mucocutaneous lesions leading to necrosis and sloughing of the epidermis. Objectives: This case report professionally provide feedback on clinical practice guidelines, offer a framework for early signals of effectiveness, adverse events; and to share the case for medical, scientific or educational purposes. Methods: This is an observational type of case report which we observed in Arba Minch University Students’ Clinic during outpatient diagnosis. Discussion: Despite ciprofloxacin induced SJS had reported in different areas by different scholars with different duration on antibiotics, clinical manifestations, duration of recovery and complications; but itis the first report in Ethiopia. Conclusion: This case concludes that severe hypersensitivity reactions like SJS can be caused by ciprofloxacin use which can be potentially life threatening. Therefore, identifying medications causing SJS is of paramount importance to withdraw it immediately and for additional treatment.

  • Alcohol Use Disorder among University Students in Cameroon and Its Related Harms

    Purpose: Underage drinking, particularly heavy episodic bouts of underage drinking and the related consequences is a major social issue plaguing college campuses worldwide. Uncontrolled drinking behavior among college and university students has resulted in the occurrence of fatalities, assaults, unintentional serious injuries road accidents, crime, unprotected sexual activity, and poor school performance. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol dependence among Cameroonian university students and to identify the related factors. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 600 randomly selected university students in Cameroon. Setting: The survey assessed students’ level of drinking using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, a screening test for harmful drinking. Data were collected online and students were asked to respond to the survey via email. Results: Six hundred students participated in the survey. Among them, 261,(43.6%) were women and 337 (56%) were men and the majority (52.7%) lived with their parents. The results demonstrated a statistically positive correlation between reason to drink, drinking demands situations, and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, proving the alternative hypothesis to be true in its form. There was also a strong statistically significant direct relationship between drinking demand and perceived drinking benefits.

  • Health Hazards with Adulterated Spices: Save the “Onion Tears”

    Spices are among the top five most commonly adulterated food types because they are expensive commodities that are processed prior to sale, used most frequently and consumed by mass population. There is a strong incentive to pollute. In Bangladesh, different types of grounded spices powders are available like onion, ginger, coriander, chilli, turmeric, cumin, etc. These powdered spices are commercially processed and packaged by some leading food industries, while some local non-branded industries also exist. Nowadays, people are busy with their carriers, the demand of branded spices powder is increasing gradually. Generally, most of the people tend to buy loose spices from the local grocery store if branded and packaged spices are not available. This increases the risk of consuming adulterated spices. Unlike this particular adulterant which is not unhealthy (but illegal), most of the adulterants are unhealthy and can cause serious and fatal damage to our system if consumed regularly. The escalating market of this product implies that in Bangladesh this tradition is increasingly attaining momentum. Spices are consumed in various forms such as whole spices, ground spices, oleoresins, extracts etc. Spices play an important role in enhancing the flavor and taste of processed foods. They are also used in medicine because of their carminative stimulating and digestive properties. Ground spices maybe adulterated with artificial colors, starch, chalk powder, etc. to increase their weight and enhance appearance. High value ground spices are frequently adulterated for economic gains. Adulteration is difficult to identify by visual and sensory inputs alone. Although there are few renowned food industries, peoples are always suspicious about these products. But there are still not enough investigations for the quality check of all these branded powdered products.


    Deaths and injury from road accidents on the highways of Ghana seem to be on the rise. Along these highways are advertising billboards with attractive, but often very seductive images of females. These images, according to advertisers, are meant to catch the maximum attention within the shortest possible time. Drivers use a large proportion of their visual sensory input, hence visually conspicuous items, such as billboards, are likely to interfere with visual processing tasks. Though few researches have been conducted on billboards and the occurrence of road accidents, as well as driver distractions, none actually focused on the visual elements as far as image mental distractions are concerned. From the positivist paradigm, the study investigated the roles visual elements on billboards play in the occurrence of road accidents. It focused on how these images add to the numerous road accidents. Standard designed survey questionnaires were administered to 200 drivers who ply the Kumasi- Accra highway route on regular basis. The data was analysed with SPSS using descriptive and Crosstab analysis methods. The study revealed that the distractions from these images were factors for these road accidents that lead to injury and death. The study also shows a connection between advertising billboard images and road accidents and how these advertising billboard images have a negative influence on driver-performance. It is therefore being recommended that stakeholders begin to focus on the kinds of billboards being mounted along the highways.

  • Patient Satisfaction: Bangladesh Perspective

    Patient’s satisfaction is a useful measure to provide an indicator of quality in healthcare services. Concern over the quality of healthcare services in Bangladesh has led to loss of faith in healthcare providers, low utilization of public health facilities, and increasing outflow of Bangladeshi patients to hospitals in abroad. The main barriers to accessing health services are inadequate services and poor quality of existing facilities, shortage of medicine supplies, busyness of doctors due to high patient load, long travel distance to facilities, and long waiting times once facilities were reached, very short consultation time, lack of empathy of the health professionals, their generally callous and casual attitude, aggressive pursuit of monetary gains, poor levels of competence and, occasionally, disregard for the suffering that patients endure without being able to voice their concerns—all of these service failures are reported frequently in the print media. Such failures can play a powerful role in shaping patients’ negative attitudes and dissatisfaction with healthcare service providers and healthcare itself.

  • Impact of a school-based intervention to address iodine deficiency disorder in adolescent girls in Gilgit, Pakistan

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a major public health problem in the high mountain population of Gilgit Baltistan province of Pakistan. In this study we evaluated the impact of iodine supplementation coupled with iodine nutrition education on IDD in adolescent girls. We conducted a pre- and post intervention study in a stratified random sample of 152 girls aged 10 to 19 years from four schools of Gilgit town in 2011. IDD was defined as having a goiter, and urinary iodine deficiency (

  • Clean Water Standards, Environmental Hygiene Sanitation, and Vector Control in Prevention of Disease Transmission in Disaster in Lombok, Indonesia: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Natural disasters are events that cannot be avoided and desired by everyone. Water and hygiene are important determinants of survival at the beginning of post-disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is needed to prevent deaths from dehydration, therefore in the event of a disaster there is a need for standards to reduce the risk of water-related diseases, sanitation hygiene and vector control. This study aims to explain the concept of water standards, sanitation cleanliness and vector control as humanitarian steps in the event of a disaster. This study shows that the application of these concepts is useful for reducing disease transmission from environmental factors and disease vector exposure. The method in this study uses the epidemiological triangle model approach. Using this method, we set basic standards in humanitarian action at the disaster in Lombok to control the risk of environmental-based diseases. Details of this method are shown in the following which includes the Environment, Agent, and Host. Adjudication is mainly achieved through promoting good hygiene practices, providing safe water, reducing environmental health risks, and controlling infectious disease vectors. This condition will allow people to live healthy with dignity, comfort, and security.

  • Estimation of Risk Factors for Cardio vascular Diseases in urban & semi-urban population: A prospective Observational Study

    Cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease) are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. It has been reported that 60–80% of patients with diabetes die of cardiovascular events. Hypertension and Diabetes are the major causes for the cardio vascular diseases across the world particularly in India. In present study, in our study population, we found that males are more prone to CVD. Hypertension and Alcohol intake are the leading causes of Cardiovascular Diseases .

  • Strategy to Reduce Incidence Disease of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Bukittinggi West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Background: Disease of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)) is contagion which because of virus dengue and contagious through of Aedes aegypti. This disease can attack everybody and death. In Bukittinggi represent non-area of endemic DHF, but almost every year the progress of occurrence DHF, District which at most case of DHF is Aur Birugo Tigo Baleh (ABTB), besides wide of the smallest area also there is the environmental factor which related case of DHF. In this context, the study aims to know Related of existence larva mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Implementation of 3M Plus with Improvement incidence disease Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Bukittinggi. Methods: It is an analytic survey with study design of case-control use test of chi- square. Research location in District of ABTB, its research responder are 78 with the technique of totally sampling. Result: The research show existence snap fingers at house snapping fingers at and suffering DHF 61,5%, do not snap fingers at and suffer DHF 38,5%. Value of House Index (HI) 43,6%, Container Index (CI) 17,9%. Implementation of 3M Plus unfavorable and suffer DHF 69,2%, while Implementation of 3M Plus good and suffer DHF 30,8%. Conclusions: From the result of research pvalue=0,003 (p

  • Depression Predictors among Older Persons in a Rural Community in South Africa

    Background: Depression is a very important part of global mental health concerns. Many of the studies on correlates of depression stopped short of finding the predictors. Predictive models will empower preventative efforts by healthcare providers and policy makers. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors predicting depressive symptoms among a population of older men and women in rural South Africa. Methods: Data were obtained from “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) in the INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site of Agincourt” in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Previously validated short-version Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 8) was used to assess for depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression model with stepwise selection, and receiver operating curve were used to examine the predictors of depression. Results: Of the 4027 participants included in this study, 743 (18.5%) met the criterion for depression (CES-D 8 score ≥3). Older age (OR 1.025, CI 1.016-1.034), diabetes (OR 1.467, CI 1.152-1.868), and alcohol consumption (OR 1.536, CI 1.261-1.872) predicted depression. Being male (OR 0.734, CI 0.588-0.915) and homemaker rather than not working (OR 0.513, CI 0.372-0.707) were protective. Compared to those who were married, depressive symptoms were significantly higher among the separated/divorced (OR 1.372, CI 1.027-1.834) and the widowed (OR 1.468, CI 1.172-1.839). Conclusions: It is possible to predict the development of depression in this community, and findings are generalizable to other communities and countries. Healthcare workers and policy makers should use the findings for preventative care and policies.