Water is considered a finite natural resource and one of the essential elements of life. It is used in various work activities such as agriculture, industry, livestock, public supply, energy generation, among others . According to SPERLING (2006) , only 2.493% of the water on the planet is suitable for the consumption of humans and animals and 0.0007% of the water accessible for consumption is present in the atmosphere, rivers and lakes. It is estimated that more than one billion people worldwide do not have access to treated water, as its supply is not made on an equal basis due to population growth, economic activities and uneven distribution contrasted with different populations. between rural and urban areas [3, 21,33,]. Problems related to water shortages in the metropolitan regions of Brazilian states are increasingly present in everyday life, and can be attributed to factors involving administrative processes, such as the high cost of drinking water treatment, pollution of water tables, increased demand for water. consumption and climatic factors. In this sense, the use of water for poor quality consumption is an alternative for regions experiencing shortages and has a direct impact on the health of individuals, especially workers and students, as about 80% of the infectious and parasitic diseases that affect developing countries are due to poor quality water, directly impacting the individual’s health [10,17,18,28,36,37]. The water potability standards in Brazil are described in Ordinance GM / MS No. 2,914, of December 12, 2011, which portrays the main physical-chemical and microbiological quality control processes aimed at ensuring water safety and quality. for human consumption [5-8,42].In relation to water-borne infectious-parasitic diseases, their main route of transmission is via the oro-fecal route, that is, ingestion of water contaminated by excreta in drinks or food. According to PEIL et al (2015) , the main…
Monitoring Parasitic Contamination of the Beaches Sand and Public Squares of Northeast Brazil: a Comparative Approach
This work aims to evaluate the parasite presence in the sand of two squares and beaches/parks in the metropolitan region of Recife-PE and João Pessoa-PB, to compare the frequencies of the main parasitological species in these locations. The samples were collected in 2014 from three different depths of the soil (surface, 10 cm, and 20 cm), obtaining 96 samples from the metropolitan regions of Recife-PE and 48 samples from João Pessoa-PB. In Recife were detected a high number of positive samples from beaches (70.8%) and squares (25.7%) compared to João Pessoa, which reached 45.8% and 25%, respectively. Twelve parasite species were identified, distributed predominantly in the samples collected in 10 and 20 cm. In Pernambuco, the species Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Endolimax nana were the most recurrent on the beaches, while Toxocara sp. and Iodamoeba butschilii were more frequent in the parks. In the Paraíba were identified only Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar on the beaches. While Ancylostoma sp., Cryptosporidium spp, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were the most recurrent in the Paraíba squares. This study highlights the contamination of parasites in public environments (squares/beaches) to alert the need for actions aimed at combating parasites in these places.
Occurrence of Anemophilous Fungi in the Special Collection of the Agricultural Sciences Center Library of the Federal University of Paraíba
Objectives: The work objective was to verify the occurrence of anemophilous fungi present in the air and on the surface of books in the special and rare collection of the CCA/UFPB Library. To the isolation of anemophilous fungi present in the air, there used a direct exposure method, in which plates were exposed for 20 min. Methods: To the isolation of anemophilous fungi present in the air, there used a direct exposure method, in which plates were exposed for 20 min. The fungi collection from the surfaces of the books, it was performed through rubbing sterile swabs along the entire length of the cover and placed in a test tube with a saline solution. Then, it sowed the samples in Petri dishes containing culture medium. The plates with samples of fungi from the air and the surface of the books, it was incubated in an oven at 28 ºC. After the growth of the colonies, the identification was based on macro and micromorphological analyzes. Results: There obtained a total of 688 isolates of anemophilous fungi belonging to 14 taxa. Most belong to the group of asexual fungi. The most frequent taxa were Penicillium (61.5%), sterile mycelia (23.5%), and Cladosporium (7.6%). Conclusion: The Library presented an important presence of several fungal genera in its spaces, favoring the biodeterioration of historical documents, besides being able to compromise the health of employees and visitors.
Objectives: to review in the literature the role and challenges of the multidisciplinary team in confronting Covid-19 and to collaborate to improve health approaches. Methods: this is an integrative literature review, carried out from July to August 2020. The data collection took place between the years 2019 to 2020, in the electronic databases PubMed and VHL (Virtual Health Library), through of the descriptors “multidisciplinary team at Covid-19”, present in the DeCS (Health Sciences Descriptors), in Portuguese and English. Results: After collecting the data, 112 (BVS = 109; PubMed = 03) scientific articles were identified, of which 100 (review = 10, duplicates = 8, outside the theme = 82) were excluded, resulting in 12 research eligible for the final sample and discussion of this work. Among the main approaches discussed, remote classes, professional training, the creation of team service protocols, the use of technology as a way to reduce the risk of contagion and optimize therapeutic approaches, disposition and guidance on the correct use of personal protective equipment and psychosocial support for health professionals, due to physical and emotional overload during the pandemic. Conclusion: Therefore, it is clear that the pandemic due to the new coronavirus poses great challenges to the entire social situation. Until then, the extent of its effects on the world population is immeasurable. Thus, it is highlighted that the integration of health professionals is considered the foundation and the most important strategy for facing Covid-19.
Objetive: This review aims to approach the impact that airborne fungi have in collections, mainly in libraries, and also their impact in the health of the people who works and visiting there. Methodology: The search was made with the most recent papers, with free access in online databases: Pubmed (National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes), Lilacs (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Science, acronym in Spanish) and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online), by using key words related with the proposed theme. Results: Libraries have substrates and residuals that allow the presence and proliferation of airborne fungi. These fungi are biodeteriorators that attack the collections but also can cause respiratory diseases, mycoses, or even systemic diseases. The most common genera are Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Acremonium and Fusarium. These fungi have asexual reproduction by producing tiny dry spores that can remain viable by long periods on the air and can also be transported on it. Preserve collections demands control of air temperature and humidity, to inhibit the airborne fungi proliferation and thus, decreasing the risks to human health. Conclusion: The knowledge about airborne fungi as contaminants in libraries environment it is of utmost importance for the development of preventive actions for preservation of the collections and also for the health of people who works in or visit them.
Background: COVID-19 pandemic mitigation requires evidence-based strategies. Because COVID-19 can spread via respired droplets, most US states mandated mask use in public settings. Randomized control trials have not clearly demonstrated mask efficacy against respiratory viruses, and observational studies conflict on whether mask use predicts lower infection rates. We hypothesized that statewide mask mandates and mask use were associated with lower COVID-19 case growth rates in the United States. Methods: We calculated total COVID-19 case growth and mask use for the continental United States with data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. We estimated post-mask mandate case growth in non-mandate states using median issuance dates of neighboring states with mandates. Results: Earlier mask mandates were not associated with lower total cases or lower maximum growth rates. Earlier mandates were weakly associated with lower minimum COVID-19 growth rates. Mask use predicted lower minimum but not lower maximum growth rates. Growth rates and total growth were comparable between US states in the first and last mask use quintiles during the Fall-Winter wave. These observations persisted for both natural logarithmic and fold growth models and when adjusting for differences in US state population density. Conclusions: We did not observe association between mask mandates or use and reduced COVID-19 spread in US states. COVID-19 mitigation requires further research and use of existing efficacious strategies, most notably vaccination.
Objectives: To determine the existence of a pattern of women most frequently victims of physical violence in Brazil over a period of 10 years. Methods: Data from the DATASUS platform were collected on the records of domestic, sexual and other violence, registered by physical violence against female persons between 2009 and 2018. Data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System on characteristics of the violent act against women were also collected. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics was also used to collect data from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD). For bibliographic reference, the descriptors “Domestic and Sexual Violence against Women”, “Domestic Violence” and “Domestic Violence” were searched on virtual data basis and Brazilian articles that were published within the period of the present study were included. Results: There is a continuous and rapid increase in the first half of the study period, with a slight deceleration between 2014 and 2016, followed by a new jump in records from 2017. As for race, the largest numbers are white women, 348428, and browns, 308902. Black women represent 68.25% of the total records of domestic, sexual and other violence, with 8.3% of the total records of physical violence. Conclusion: It is possible to estimate that black women are not making complaints or possibly are not being seen with due care to make them. As it is data that depends on denunciation, which is often not carried out, the results need consideration regarding assertiveness and reflection of reality.
Objectives: Describe vaccination coverage and measles incidence in Brazil from 2016 to 2019. Methods: Quantitative, descriptive and retrospective study of confirmed cases of measles and vaccination coverage in the last 04 years, in the regions of Brazil. The data were exported from epidemiological bulletins from all regions, made available by the Ministry of Health and State Health Secretariats. Immunization data were collected using Tabnet/DATASUS, and organized in Microsoft Office Excel® (2019). Results: During 2016-2017, Brazil did not report confirmed measles cases. In 2018, 10,322 cases were recorded, with a prevalence of 10.245 (99.25%) in the North, followed by the South 46 (0.44%) and Southeast 23 (0.22%). In 2019, 20,901 cases were recorded, with the Southeast region having the highest incidence, 18.426 (88.15%), followed by the South region with 1.468 (7.02%). Between 2016-2019, the vaccination average was 84.05%. In this period, the North region reached the lowest coverage, 75.79%, followed by the Northeast region, 80.31%. In 2018, the highest incidence of cases was observed in the North region, due to the lower vaccination coverage obtained in the last 4 years. In 2019, the majority of cases were in the Southeast region, because despite the satisfactory vaccination coverage, the disease spreads more easily in large urban centers. Conclusion: Despite the increase in vaccination campaigns, Brazil has not reached the minimum number of vaccinations, in the last 4 years, to obtain herd immunity, increasing the manifestation of the disease in the last 2 years.
Prevalence of Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract Parasites Among Students of Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
The prevalence of gastrointestinal and urinary tract parasites among students of Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education (IJBCOE), Bayelsa State was investiagted. Faecal and urine samples were collected from 273 presumably healthy students of the college. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory using sedimentation method for urine and formol-ether concentration method for the stool samples. A self-structured questionnaire was used to obtain some risk factors associated with the transmission of the parasites. Out of the 273 students investigated, 60 (22.0%), 31(11.4%) and 12(4.4%) were positive for gastrointestinal parasites, urinary tract parasites and coinfection of gastrointestinal and urinary tract parasites respectively. Entamoeba histolytica recorded the highest prevalence among the gastrointestinal parasites identified (62%), followed by Entamoeba coli (18.3%), Giardia lamblia (11.7%), Blastccytis homonis (5%), and Enterobius vermicularis (3.3%). Among the two urinary tract parasites identified, Trichomonas vaginalis was more prevalent (90.3%) while Schistosoma haematobium had 9.7%. More Female students (37.8%) were infected than males (25.7%) by gastrointestinal parasites. The age range prevalence for gastrointestinal parasites recorded 45%, 37.3%, 28.3% and 25% for 26 – 30 years, 16 – 20 years, 21 – 25 years, and 31 – 35 years respectively. Lack of awareness, consumption of faecal matter-contaminated food and water, poor sanitation, defaecation into drinking water sources were identified as risk factors for gastrointestinal parasites while engagement in unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners were recorded as risk factors for the transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis. Increased personal hygiene and sanitation, provision of toilet facilities and health education will mitigate the prevalence of the parasites in the study area.
Transgender identities, with or without surgical changes are produced by individual decisions which resonate nevertheless with a series of information deficits and also spill from the biophysical effects of artificial sources of contamination. Findings from other researchers and the author’s experience are brought together to prove the point.