Public Health

  • Image Restoration for University Leaders’ Public Health COVID-19 Response: A Case Study of Notre Dame

    Do as I say, not as I do is a common phrase that applies to the case of Notre Dame’s president as he began the Fall 2020 semester chastising students for gathering in large groups off campus leading to the spread of COVID-19 while he, just a month later, gathered unmasked in the U.S. White House Rose Garden to celebrate the nomination of a Notre Dame alum to the Supreme Court. This study draws upon image restoration strategies in crisis response literature to examine Notre Dame and its president’s public response to both the two-week move to remote education in Fall 2020 following COVID-19 outbreak among its students and the unmasked attendance to an event that resulted in Notre Dame’s president testing positive for COVID-19. Overall, evasion of responsibility and corrective action typified the university’s response to students’ behaviors that led to public health risk, but mortification along with contradictory messages evading responsibility typified the individual response of the university’s president that led to public health risk. Of interest to the case is the lack of religious appeal intertwined in the image restoration strategies used in the president’s apology yet the use of religious appeal in the university’s accusations against student public health behavior. Given that Notre Dame is a religiously affiliated university and the president is clergy, the inconsistent use of religious appeal may undermine the image restoration rhetoric of the president.

  • Transtheoretical model as a framework for promoting cardiovascular health through behaviour change: a systematic review

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the single leading cause of death around the globe. The Transtheoretical model (TTM) is a successful framework for guiding behaviour change programmes for several health behaviours, yet there are limited reviews on how TTM has been used to facilitate behaviour change associated with reduced CVD. Therefore, the aims of this systematic review are to determine (i) how TTM has been used in promoting physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking cessation and (ii) gaps in knowledge in the use of stage-based model to improve physical activity, intake of fruit and vegetables, and smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: The approach to this systematic review was informed by current recommendations known as Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Results: Constructs of TTM were used in the design of studies, facilitation of health behaviour change, monitoring of change in the movement of the participants across the change continuum, and evaluation of the effectiveness of health behaviour programmes. TTM was incorporated with other models, including Health Belief Model (HBM), social-ecological model, and social cognitive theory to facilitate behaviour change. There were limited studies that used all the four constructs of TTM to promote health behaviour change. Conclusion: TTM is a promising tool for designing, facilitating, monitoring, and evaluating behaviour change associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD). TTM may be incorporated with other models, including HBM, social-ecological model, and social cognitive theory to facilitate behaviour change.

  • Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training Programme on Blood Cholesterol Profile in Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases among Young Adults

    This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training programme on blood cholesterol profile as cardiovascular disease risk factor among adolescents. The study employed the true experimental of pretest post test design with one experimental and control group. The population consisted of 745 students of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti. The participants for the study were 32 students comprising 22 participants for the experimental and 10 for the control groups with equal number of male and female in each case. The instruments used for sample and data collection for the study were; stadiometer, vacutainer needles, plastic vacuum tubes, vacutainer holder, tourniquet, disinfection swabs, microspore tape, adhesive dressing, rubber gloves, lithium heparin bottles and spectrophotometer. The training programme consisted of graded activities lasting for 25-40 minutes, administered three times a week for 12 weeks. The blood samples collected were subjected to chemical analysis generated for the study. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and range and inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was employed to determine how much effect the treatment had on the cholesterol profile of the students. Statistical analysis showed significant reduction of total cholesterol, low density lipoproteincholesterol, and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Aerobic exercise training programme had positive effects on total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the adolescents. It is therefore recommended that behavioural counseling will goal on way re-orientating the adolescents towards aerobic exercise training programme which will help in preventing cardio vascular diseases in adult population.

  • Diabetes Mellitus: General aspects

    Knowing Diabetes Mellitus, as well as its main characteristics is a means of prevention. From this perspective, this chapter aims to analyze the main characteristics about Diabetes Mellitus, taking as an approach the general aspects that involve epidemiology, costs, correlation with arterial hypertension, in addition to Gestational Diabetes.

  • Health seeking behaviour for Buruli Ulcer disease in the Obom sub-district of the Ga south Municipality of Ghana

    The current biomedical Buruli ulcer case management strategies emphasise the importance of early reporting and appropriate medical treatment of nodules before they ulcerate and give rise to deformities and disabilities. However, there are a wide range of factors that influence health seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer case management. The purpose of the study was to determine health seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer by affected persons and their families. This was a descriptive study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection. Thirty (30) in-depth interviews were conducted for Buruli ulcer patients and their corresponding caregivers on barriers and facilitators to health seeking. Three (3) Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted among elderly community members. Survey questionnaire interviews were conducted with 300 community respondents in Ga, Akan and Ewe languages in the study area. Systematic sampling was used to select 300 respondents for the survey. The study revealed that most respondents (41.0%) would resort to self-medication as their first treatment option when infected with Buruli ulcer. However, the health seeking of self-medication before seeking biomedical treatment was alarming since it leads to delays in reporting. This is a serious public health concern since delay in reporting could lead to category three lesions.

  • Assessment of Injection Safety Practices among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Safety of injections been administered on daily basis is becoming of significant Public Health importance considering the increasing prevalence of complications and the negative impact this could have on the overall good intention of the Healthcare providers. It is on the basis of this that we assessed the level of awareness and compliance with injection safety practices among Healthcare workers in Ekiti State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique to recruit 582 HCWs across the State. In Stage One, 2 LGAs were selected from each of the 3 senatorial districts by simple random sampling technique through balloting and in stage two, a list of all the Health Facilities (Public and Private) in the selected LGAs was compiled and all were included in the study. In Stage three, A cluster sampling method was used to select all the staff who are eligible to administer injections in the selected HFs at the time of survey. A semi-structured questionnaire and an observational checklist was used for data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. A total of 582 HCWs were interviewed and 151 HFs were directly observed for compliance with Injection safety procedures. The mean age of the respondents was 38.2 ± 9.6 years. Females constituted about 86.8% while 83.5% were married. Majority of the respondents were CHEW, Nurses, Doctors and Health Attendants. Awareness of injection safety was generally high as about 93.6% of respondents were aware. However, only about 62.9% of them has ever had any form of training on Injection safety. Only about 3% of the respondents have not reused syringes, while only about 41% has ever used an AD syringe, among whom about 32% always use AD syringes. Safety boxes were available and used in about 93% of the HFs, however, the final method…

  • Stress and Complicacy Among Relationships: A Major Health Concern

    On Valentine’s Day, the sight of couples holding hands and hugging each-other might unleash a wave of jealousy in those who are single. However, there might not be much to be jealous about. Also, marital quality clearly colors one’s overall sense of well-being, and marital distress elevates health risks, says a leading clinical psychology journal. However, the simple presence of a spouse is not necessarily protective; a troubled marriage is itself a prime source of stress, and simultaneously limits the partner’s ability to seek support in other relationships. The worst distance between two persons in a relationship misunderstanding. Indeed, the relationship between life satisfaction and marital quality is stronger than life satisfaction’s ties to either one’s job or one’s health.

  • Drug Induced-Stevens Johnson Syndrome

    Background: Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is one of the severe forms of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Despite it is rare, SJS is highly weakening and life-threatening illness commonly occurs as a result of medications, which is characterized by fever and mucocutaneous lesions leading to necrosis and sloughing of the epidermis. Objectives: This case report professionally provide feedback on clinical practice guidelines, offer a framework for early signals of effectiveness, adverse events; and to share the case for medical, scientific or educational purposes. Methods: This is an observational type of case report which we observed in Arba Minch University Students’ Clinic during outpatient diagnosis. Discussion: Despite ciprofloxacin induced SJS had reported in different areas by different scholars with different duration on antibiotics, clinical manifestations, duration of recovery and complications; but itis the first report in Ethiopia. Conclusion: This case concludes that severe hypersensitivity reactions like SJS can be caused by ciprofloxacin use which can be potentially life threatening. Therefore, identifying medications causing SJS is of paramount importance to withdraw it immediately and for additional treatment.

  • Alcohol Use Disorder among University Students in Cameroon and Its Related Harms

    Purpose: Underage drinking, particularly heavy episodic bouts of underage drinking and the related consequences is a major social issue plaguing college campuses worldwide. Uncontrolled drinking behavior among college and university students has resulted in the occurrence of fatalities, assaults, unintentional serious injuries road accidents, crime, unprotected sexual activity, and poor school performance. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol dependence among Cameroonian university students and to identify the related factors. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 600 randomly selected university students in Cameroon. Setting: The survey assessed students’ level of drinking using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, a screening test for harmful drinking. Data were collected online and students were asked to respond to the survey via email. Results: Six hundred students participated in the survey. Among them, 261,(43.6%) were women and 337 (56%) were men and the majority (52.7%) lived with their parents. The results demonstrated a statistically positive correlation between reason to drink, drinking demands situations, and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, proving the alternative hypothesis to be true in its form. There was also a strong statistically significant direct relationship between drinking demand and perceived drinking benefits.

  • Health Hazards with Adulterated Spices: Save the “Onion Tears”

    Spices are among the top five most commonly adulterated food types because they are expensive commodities that are processed prior to sale, used most frequently and consumed by mass population. There is a strong incentive to pollute. In Bangladesh, different types of grounded spices powders are available like onion, ginger, coriander, chilli, turmeric, cumin, etc. These powdered spices are commercially processed and packaged by some leading food industries, while some local non-branded industries also exist. Nowadays, people are busy with their carriers, the demand of branded spices powder is increasing gradually. Generally, most of the people tend to buy loose spices from the local grocery store if branded and packaged spices are not available. This increases the risk of consuming adulterated spices. Unlike this particular adulterant which is not unhealthy (but illegal), most of the adulterants are unhealthy and can cause serious and fatal damage to our system if consumed regularly. The escalating market of this product implies that in Bangladesh this tradition is increasingly attaining momentum. Spices are consumed in various forms such as whole spices, ground spices, oleoresins, extracts etc. Spices play an important role in enhancing the flavor and taste of processed foods. They are also used in medicine because of their carminative stimulating and digestive properties. Ground spices maybe adulterated with artificial colors, starch, chalk powder, etc. to increase their weight and enhance appearance. High value ground spices are frequently adulterated for economic gains. Adulteration is difficult to identify by visual and sensory inputs alone. Although there are few renowned food industries, peoples are always suspicious about these products. But there are still not enough investigations for the quality check of all these branded powdered products.