International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

  • Micronutrient Composition and its Bio-availability in Complementary Foods Developed From Cereal (Millet/Maize), Soybean and Monkey kola Flours

    The micronutrient composition of complementary foods produced from blends of cereal (millet/maize), soybean and monkey kola flours were evaluated. Seven millet-based blends (A1 to G1) and maizebased blends (A2 to G2) were analyzed for total carotene content. Thereafter, 100% millet, 100% maize, the two millet and maize based blends that had the highest carotene content were analyzed for total minerals (Ca, Mg, P, Fe, and Zn) and their bio-availability comparing with a commercially available complementary product (cerelac maize) which served as control. The total carotene content of the test samples ranged from 27.69 to 164.58μg/100g in the milletbased blends and from 233.61 to 464.48μg/100g in the maize-based blends. Sample G1 and all the maize-based blends were found to be higher in total carotene when compared to the control. Total mineral content result showed that calcium ranged from 91.09 to 121.59mg/100g and their bioavailability ranged from 44.14 to 67.96% while the control had a total calcium content of 337.15mg/100g and a bio-availability of 58.92%. Magnesium in the test samples ranged from 10.44 to 12.29mg/100g and bio-availability of 82.56 to 99.33% while the control was found to be 11.18mg/100g and a bioavailability of 87.65%. Phosphorous was from 7.32 to 17.12mg/100g and bio-availability was from 54.48 to 81.43% but the control had 17.12mg/100g and a bio-availability of 61.35%. Iron had a range of 9.31 to 26.27mg/100g and bio-availability from 8.19 to 64.81%, whereas the control had 27.74mg/100g and a bio-availability of 51.47%. Zinc from 1.85 to 6.27mg/100g and bio-availability of 51.62 to 74.71% while C3 had 3.93mg/100g and a bio-availability of 42.86%. This means that complementary foods from blends of cereal, soybean and monkey kola flours compared with commercially available complementary products and are suitable to improve the micronutrient intake of infant and young children in developing countries.


    Introduction: In addition to its anti-cancer action, p53 and ATM play an important role in oxidative balance control, promoting cell repair and survival. High fat diets can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (EROS). Grape polyphenols seem to reduce EROS and restore oxidative balance, favoring the performance of p53 and ATM. Objetive: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of high polyphenols beverages associated with a high fat diet in mRNA levels of p53 and ATM. Methods: Fifty female rats were divided into five groups: Control Group (CG) – control diet (4% fat); High fat diet group (HFD) – high fat diet (20% fat); Grape Juice Group (GJ) – grape juice (15 ml/day) + high fat diet; Red Wine Group (RW) – red wine (10 ml/day) + high fat diet; Resveratrol Solution Group (RS) – resveratrol solution (15 ml/day) + high fat diet. Eight weeks later, muscular and adipose tissue were collected and subjected to PCR analysis. Results: In muscular tissue, the highest p53 mRNA expression was found in the GJ and VT group, and not in the SR as expected. In adipose tissue, GJ presented the highest expression among all groups. TpATM expression was higher in the HFD, both in adipose and muscle tissue. Treatment with high polyphenols beverages normalized TpATM expression, especially in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In this experimental model, high fat diet alters ATM mRNA levels, but does not change p53 mRNA levels. Grape juice and red wine showed to be the most effective to increase TP53 mRNA levels, possibly due to a set of bioactive compounds that acts synergistically. Additionally, rich polyphenols beverages normalizes ATM mRNA levels, mainly in adipose tissue.

  • Effects of Artepelin-C Supplementation Present in Propolis Related to Inflammatory Processes in Physically Active Individuals

    The scientific literature shows that propolis has both anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities and is widely used in phytotherapic therapy. In this context, its main objective is to evaluate the inflammation recovery process in physically active individuals, from two groups, with or without propolis intake. Volunteers had their food, blood and pain parameters evaluated with or without propolis intake. The trial used seven male volunteers undergoing specific training in two 30-day protocols, one using placebo and another using propolis which contains Artepelin-C (chemically 3,5-diprenyl-p-coumarin acid, which is one of the main phenolic acids present in the green propolis extract). Participants between 18 and 35 years old under no medication should have had at least a 6-month workout. Performance physical tests were applied, body composition measurements and blood collection were taken and a 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaire were carried out at São Judas Tadeu University. All volunteers were asked to register their food intake during the 30-day protocol and data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Students T-test for paired samples at

  • Influence of Complementary Food Composition on Prevalence of Anemia among Children Aged 6-24 Months in West Cameroon

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for human health and inadequate intake may result in iron deficiency (ID) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). In western region of Cameroon, 39 % of children under 59 months suffering from IDA. To reduce the high prevalence of IDA, the evaluation of nutritional potential of complementary food is very necessary to improve the nutritional status of the young children. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of complementary food composition on prevalence of anemia among young children living in West Cameroon. A food interview survey was carried out among 50 families (25 families with children having Hb ≥ 11 g/dL and 25 families having children with Hb ≤ 11 g/d/L). Ten complementary foods frequently consumed by children were recruited near the families. The amount of food nutrient intake per day was also determined. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) and the principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA shows that corn meal with vegetables was a dish with high level in iron, fats, dietary fiber and calcium. The complementary food based on corn meal with okra and those based on Irish potatoes with beans and fishes were higher in protein, ash, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc. The other dishes based on irish potatoes, rice, peanuts and corn meal porridge had high levels of carbohydrates. There was no significant difference between the daily iron, protein, calcium, and potassium intakes between anemic and non anemic children. However, food intake of anemic children was low compared with non-anemic children. The daily iron intake of the children ranged between 23.73 % and 42.27 % of their iron requirement daily. Their daily iron was generally poor. Though, most of their foods were of plant source whose nutrients are poorly bioavailable. Therefore, application of improved food…

  • Changes in Microbiological Quality of Table Spreads Produced from African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) Pulp during Storage

    African pear (Dacryodes edulis) pulp was extracted and pasteurized. The pasteurized pulp was homogenized with different levels of food grade additives to form table spreads of samples A to H while sample I was left without preservative. The spreads were packed in sealed glass containers and stored at room temperature (28±20C) for 4 weeks to evaluate the changes in microbiological quality of table spread during storage period. Samples were collected in a weekly interval to study the microbiological assay of the spread starting from week zero to the last week. High total bacteria count of 1.8x107CFU/ml was seen in sample I (spread without preservative) at week zero, this increased significantly to 8.1x108CFU/ml after 3 weeks of storage and TNTC (too numerous to count) after 4 weeks of storage at 28±20C. The least growth were observed in samples A and C with bacteria counts of 8.1x107CFU/ml and 3.5x107CFU/ml, respectively. The least fungi count of 2.0x106CFU/ml was noted in sample C after 4 weeks of storage while the highest fungi count of 4.5x107CFU/ml was seen in sample I after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature (28±20C). The suspected microorganisms based on their morphology were; E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella specie while fungi were Penicillium specie and Aspergillus specie. Deterioration sets in significantly after two weeks storage as total bacteria and fungi counts rose above 1.0×107 and 1.5×106, respectively. The microbiological quality of the samples was stable up to the second week of storage except sample I (without preservative).

  • Ancient whole grain gluten-free quinoa, high protein, vegetable flatbreads

    The objective was to evaluate four kinds of ancient whole grain gluten-free Quinoa, high protein, vegetable, nutritious, tasty, health promoting flatbreads. The flatbreads were Quinoa Peanut Meal Kale (QPK), QPK-Onions, QPK-Garlic and QPK-Cilantro. Quinoa contains all the essential amino acids. Peanut Meal was utilized to formulate higher protein flatbreads and to add value to this low value farm byproduct. Fresh green leafy vegetable kale was used with health promoting potential as it binds bile acids. Onions, garlic and cilantro contain healthful phytonutrients. The level of fresh onions, garlic and cilantro were determined by consensus of the laboratory personnel. Flatbread dough was prepared using 50-67 ml water per 100g as is ingredients. The ingredients were Quinoa flour and Peanut Meal (39.4%) and fresh Kale (19.7%) as is basis. Onions, Garlic and Cilantro flatbreads contained 28%, 7% and 28% of the respective ingredients. 50g flatbread dough was pressed between parchment paper in tortilla flatbread press to about 17 cm circle. Flatbreads were cooked in flatbread cooker for 2-minutes at (165-195 oC). Seventy-one in-house volunteers evaluated Color/Appearance of the QPK, QPK-Onions and QPK-Garlic to be similar and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) preferred than QPK-Cilantro flatbreads. Odor/Aroma of QPK-Onions and QPK-Garlic flatbreads was similar and significantly higher than QPK and QPK-Cilantro. Texture/Mouth Feel of the QPK-Garlic flatbreads was judged significantly higher than QPK and QPK-Cilantro. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance of QPK-Onions flatbreads was significantly better than QPK and QPK-Cilantro. The acceptance of the flatbreads tested was QPK-Onions 92%, QPK-Garlic 89%, QPK 77% and QPK-Cilantro 72%. These flat breads used only 3-4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. These whole gain, high protein, gluten-free, vegetable, flatbreads offer tasty, nutritious and healthy choice to all and those sensitive to gluten.

  • Effect of Pasteurisation on the Proximate Composition, Mineral and Sensory Properties of Fresh and Dry Tiger Nuts, and Their Milk Extracts

    The proximate, mineral and sensory properties of pasteurised and unpasteurised fresh and dry yellow tiger nuts and their milk extract were evaluated. Milk from samples of fresh and dry tiger nuts were extracted separately by wet milling and expression before pasteurisation. The moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and energy content of the tiger nuts varied from 14.36 – 47.98%, 5.54 – 6.85%, 1.31 – 1.97%, 5.28 – 4.60%, 26.09 – 24.60%, and 296.72 – 434.00 KJ/g respectively. The total sugar content was 9.82 – 11.85% for pasteurised tiger nuts and 10.09 – 12.64% for unpasteurised nuts while reducing sugar ranged from 3.06 – 4.82 and 3.67 – 5.01% respectively, for pasteurised and unpasteurised tiger nuts. Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg and K content ranged from 0.09 – 0.13, 11.00 – 13.74, 0.05 – 0.06, 1692.94 – 1921.99, 265.12 – 794.57 and 1048.34 – 1181.67 mg/100g respectively. The moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and energy values of the milk extract varied from 76.93 – 81.92%, 9.84 – 11.41%, 3.09 – 5.01%, 0.01 – 0.03%, 0.01 – 0.11%, 2.74 – 7.16% and 373.22 – 488.68 KJ/g respectively. Total sugar content was 9.63 – 11.64 and 10.81– 12.23% respectively, for the pasteurized and unpasteurized milk while the reducing sugar ranged from 3.42 – 4.13 and 4.14 – 4.49 %. Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg and K content varied from 0.02 – 0.03, 3.67 – 4.34, 0.02 – 0.03, 606.98 – 669.32, 86.88 – 289.71 and 349.45 – 393.89 mg/100g respectively. Dry tiger nut and its milk had significantly (P≤0.05) higher proximate, sugar and mineral contents. Pasteurization significantly (P

  • Chemical and microbiological properties of kavut flour produced in some regions of Turkey

    Kavut is a traditional cereal product prepared with kavut flour, which is obtained from grinding wheat or barley, and sugar, milk and butter. In this study, 35 unpacked kavut flour samples that were produced in house conditions and family businesses in Kars province and sold in delicatessen and shopping arcades were analyzed chemically to determine their ash, moisture, acidity (%), protein ratio and microbiologically to determine their Total Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (TAMB), coliform, mould and rope spores counts. Ash, moisture, protein and acidity ratios (%) of flour samples were found to be within the limits specified in the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on wheat flour. According to the results of the microbiological analysis, the count of TAMB, mould and coliform bacteria were determined to be below the maximum acceptable limit defined in the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on Microbiological Criteria. In general, it was observed that kavut flour is eligible for kavut production given its microbiological and chemical properties.

  • Content Analysis of Television Food Advertisements Aimed at Children: Case Study of Lagos and Ibadan

    Advertisement is one of the major components of the food environment which influences in childhood food choices. This study was conducted to analyze the content of food advertisements aimed at children in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria. Advertisement samples which were aired between March 2016 to April 2016 were collected from six television stations. A total of 58 advertisments aimed at children were coded and analysed thematically. Beverages, fruit drinks and soft drinks were the most frequently advertised (32.8%). Butter and margarine had the highest mean duration of time spent for advertisement (47.00± 22.91 seconds), while the mean time for all the advertisement was 34.72±14.05 seconds. Although 82.8% of the advertisements had a slogan, about half of them (48.3%) carried no nutrition message.

  • A review article on health benefits of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp)

    Pigeon pea is a perennial tropical crop primarily grown in Asia and Africa, and its seeds are consumed as a rich source of protein and carbohydrates both in fresh and dried forms. It has been used as an important part of the folk and traditional medicine in India, China, and South America to prevent and treat various human diseases. This crop has been successfully grown in some southeastern states but still considered as a novel pulse here in the US with the majority of the work focused on its non-consumable parts like leaves, stems, and roots. Literature studies indicate that pigeon pea has the potential to prevent and treat many human diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, measles, hepatitis, yellow fever, ulcers, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. Nutritionally along with protein and fiber, it has a decent number of health-promoting phytochemicals. Foremost phytochemicals found in pigeon pea seeds are phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and phytic acid. These minor components predominately exhibit antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. It is an excellent source of inexpensive plant-based protein. Some studies describe the bioactive role of protein fractions, especially as an antihyperglycemic factor. Seeds are the edible and non-perishable part of this crop with the feasibility of addition in food products. Functional properties of the pigeon pea flour make it a suitable ingredient for food products like bread, pasta, and nutritional bars which can make it a gluten-free substitute for cereals.