International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research

  • Astaxanthin: The possible effects of this carotenoid on disease, inflammation and aging control. A meta-analysis

    Astaxanthin (ATX), a red pigment that belongs to the xanthophyll subclass of carotenoids, has a strong antioxidant ability and can eliminate singlet oxygen (O2-) as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation. ATX can also prevent mitochondrial dysfunction by permeating and co-localizing within the mitochondria and inhibit the release of cytochrome c resulting from mitochondrial permeabilization and, thus, prevent mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death. Due to its antioxidant capacity and modulating properties of cell signaling, ATX exhibits a variety of beneficial biological activities among them protection against UV damage, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, metabolic syndrome (MS) relief, cardioprotective effects, antidiabetic activity, prevention of neuronal damage, anti-aging and anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate what has been published about ATX in PubMed/Medline between 2020-2021. The results were distributed in four Tables as follows: Table 1-Publication types; Table 2- Proposal for evaluating the article in vivo; Table 3- Cells markers used in clinical studies in vivo; Table 4- Astaxanthin in human clinical trial. We could observe that the interest of the scientific community has been growing in relation to the benefits of ATX. The results presented in the articles evaluated in this meta-analysis showed us that AXT is already a reality as an option in treatments for various diseases, including glaucoma, heart and vascular injury, type 2 diabetes and fatty liver. We conclude that ATX may not only be a promising nutraceutical as an ally to alternative treatments of the pathologies mentioned above, but also as a powerful prophylactic in elderly individuals in prevention of diseases associated with aging.

  • Evaluation Of Murinometric Parameters In Wistar Rats Submitted To Diet Containing Babaçu Coconut Oil

    Objective: Evaluate the effects of the maternal diet containing babassu coconut oil on future generation, through the analysis of murinometric parameters during the lactation period. Methods: The analysis was carried out with 32 rats of the Wistar lineage, from the breeding facility of the Department of Nutrition at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE). These animals came from mothers who were isolated in individual cage in 2 groups, being a control group (CG, n = 16) with a standard diet according to the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition-93G (AIN-93) and an experimental group, with an AIN diet -93-G modified, containing babaçu oil (GEO, n = 16). The animals were subjected to an artificial light-dark cycle of 12/12 hours, with free access to water and food. The offspring were submitted to evaluations every three days regarding: body weight, waist circumference, tail length, Lee index, body mass index and abdomen-thorax ratio. Results: It was demonstrated that there was no statistical difference between the groups regarding weight gain and murinometric measurements of the offspring, except for the item related to tail length at 21 days. A significant reduction was identified in the GEO group when compared to the respective control (3,604 ± 1,062 versus 3,836 ± 1,254). Conclusion: The data obtained indicate that unbalanced levels of fatty acids in the maternal diet can affect the development of the progeny nervous system. However, studies for longer periods are necessary, as well as other behavioral variables to better clarify these nutritional implications on the development and functioning of the nervous system.

  • Nutritional potential of anti-anemic drinks based on Manihot esculenta L. or Graptophyllum pictum L. leaf extracts consumed in Yaoundé Cameroon

    Anemia is a global public health problem. In Cameroon, the most vulnerable to anemia are children under 5 years of age (60%) and pregnant women (40%). To reduce prevalence of anemia, several approaches have been adopted, including promoting the production and consumption of iron-rich foods/products. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional potential of anti-anemic drinks based on extracts from the leaves of either Manihot esculenta or Graptophyllum pictum consumed by the populations of the city of Yaoundé in Cameroon. Macronutrient contents were determined using the standard A.O.A.C. methods, while mineral contents were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Bioactive compounds such as total polyphenols, flavonoids, and saponins were analyzed. Vitamin C was determined by the 2,6 dichlorophenol indophenol spectrophotometric method (DCPIP) and the contents of anti-nutrients (tannins, phytates, oxalates, saponins, hydrocyanic acid) quantified using standard methods. The results of these analyses show that the mean protein contents in the studied anti-anemic drinks ranged from 0.64 ± 0.08 g/100 mL to 1.84 ± 0.02 g/100 mL (M. esculenta drink); and 0.25 ± 0.01 g/100 mL (G. pictum drink). Sugar contents ranged from 0.30 ± 0.02 g/100 mL to 0.45 ± 0.01 g/100 mL (M. esculenta drink), and 0.29 ± 0.01 g/100 mL (G. pictum drink). As concerns iron contents, and vitamin C contents were inversely proportional across M. esculenta drinks containing 25% milk (2.29 ± 0.15 mg/100 mL iron; 57.9 ± 0.2 mg/100mL vit C) through 50% milk (1.70 ± 0.03 mg/100 mL iron; 147.19 ± 16.05 mg/100 mL vit C) to 75% milk (1.01 ± 0.11 mg/100 mL iron; 221.1 ± 16.96 mg/100 mL vit C). Likewise, iron and vit C levels in the G. pictum drink were 0.18 ± 0.01 mg/100 mL and 999.1 ± 41.2 mg/100 mL respectively. In general, although some anti-nutrients were…

  • In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder

    Ready to Eat (RTE) sorghum cookies were prepared by incorporating green gram flour at 10%, 20%, 30%, dried mango powder at 10% and evaluated for their physico-chemical and nutritional properties. Protein, fat, fiber and ash increased with increase in green gram flour substitution as carbohydrate content decreased significantly. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in protein content were seen in cookies ranging from 9.52% to 13.60%. Fiber increased significantly from 9.40% to 10.90%. In vitro protein digestibility ranged from 67.75 ± 0.01% to 90.05 ± 0.10 %. Vitamins analysed increased with addition of green gram flour. Thiamine content ranged from 0.22±0.02 to 0.61±0.02 mg/100g, riboflavin from 0.09±0.00 to 1.39±0.04 mg/100g and ascorbic acid from 13.87±0.79 to 19.31±0.94 mg/100g. Value addition of under-utilized crops like sorghum and green grams can play a vital role in development of high nutritional quality RTE products.

  • Nutritional Profile of Patients with Acquired Immunodefience Syndrome

    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of patients living with the human immunodeficiency virus and making use of antiretroviral medication. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional analytical study that was conducted from May to July 2018. The nutritional status was determined through the evaluation of anthropometric data. The anthropometric measurements collected were: body mass index, brachial circumference, triceps skin fold and waist circumference. Results: We evaluated 120 patients in regular use of antiretroviral therapy. According to the body mass index, most individuals (41.2%) presented eutrophy, followed by overweight (35.7%). Regarding waist circumference, about 30% of patients presented a much increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. It was also observed that 47.5% of the patients presented eutrophy through the arm circumference parameter. Regarding the anthropometric parameter, triceps skin fold, it was observed that 29.9% of the patients presented severe malnutrition, followed by obesity (24.2%). Conclusion: It is known that even individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy, aiming at slowing the progression of the disease, may present a possible involuntary weight loss during treatment. When related, the parameters of arm circumference, triceps skin fold, and waist circumference characterize the clinical signs of lipodystrophic syndrome, defined as abnormal redistribution of body fat. It is concluded that constant nutritional monitoring of patients in regular use of antiretroviral therapy drugs is necessary in order to prevent possible complications in the nutritional status of patients living with the human immunodeficiency virus.

  • New Technologies for Ultrasonic Food Preservation

    Objective: To review the literature on new techniques of food conservation, focusing on the use of ultrasound. Material and methods: Bibliographic survey through digital platforms such as Scielo and Pubmed between 2018-2019. Results: Ultrasound is an innovative technology with great possibilities of use on an industrial scale. The main techniques used are: 1. cooking: uniform heat transfer, increasing the quality in characteristics such as taste, color and texture, preserving properties such as essential proteins being more effective than the frying pan; 2. cutting, widely used – cavitation will generate less losses and give precise cuts than the razor ; 3. The freezing/crystallization – the temperature decreases quickly having less ice crystals and reducing the time it would take if it was a freezing process; and finally 4, the emulsification, using less energy and less separation, giving more stability than the mechanical process. The ultrasound presents its alterations in meat foods as an improvement in texture and benefits in the extraction of proteins. Conclusion: Thus, the Ultrasonic Technology has great potential in the conservation of food, by keeping them stable with its characteristics. Its applicability is still being studied for better adaptation in the industrial scale. The nutritionist should be aware of these new techniques to help in the formulation of products with better nutritional value and food safety.

  • Food security in the time of Coronavirus (COVID-19). The Argentine case

    The context of pandemic of the human coronavirus COVID-19, preventive strategies based on mandatory social isolation (quarantine) were imposed by governments to reduce transmission in the community. However, they have had a strong impact on the economies of the countries and on the people as massive layoffs, decreased wages, uncertainty, inability to work formally, increasing precariousness and inequality and food insecurity. Without a doubt, the pandemic surprised Argentina without the necessary tools to amortize the attacks of the disease, and all the collateral consequences that emerge from it. The concept of food insecurity represents a situation or a process experienced by households in which there is a limited and uncertain availability of the quantity and quality of food that allow covering the nutritional requirements of people, thus as an also limited and uncertain availability of the ability to acquire them in an acceptable way from a social and cultural perspective. This work addresses household food insecurity at the micro-social level based on their own surveys and describes the strategies carried out by households in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city, Argentina to withstand the effect. FI status was assessed among 200 adult university students a mean age of 28±6 years (57% female, 43% male) during isolation period in April -May 2020 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). The students responded affirmatively and with a higher percentage value to the items related to the lack of money to consume healthy and nutritious food. Food security status of the 200 students survey, 23.5 per cent (n = 47) were food secure. Food insecurity was reported by 76.5% (n = 153). Of these, 50% (n = 100) were mild food insecurity, 25.5% (n = 51) were moderate, while 1% (n = 2) were severe food insecurity. Food insecurity derived from access,…

  • In-Vitro Starch Hydrolysis and Prediction of Glycaemic Indices of Biscuits Produced from Wheat, African Walnut and Moringa Seed Flour Blends

    African walnut and moringa seed were procured and processed into flours. Biscuits were thus produced from different blends of wheat flour (WHF), African walnut flour (AWF) and moringa seed flour (MSF) in the ratios of (WHT:AWF:MSF) 100:0:0, 77.5:20:2.5, 75:20:5, 72.5:20:7.5, 70:20:10, 90:0:10, 80:20:0 and labelled from A to G, respectively. The produced biscuits were evaluated for dietary fibre content, in-vitro starch hydrolysis and predicted glycaemic indices. The results of dietary fibre content of the biscuits revealed that sample E was significantly higher with a value of 0.72g compare to other samples. Dietary fibre content of the biscuits increased as the level of substitution with moringa seed flour increased. Results of the in-vitro starch hydrolysis of the biscuits showed that the percentage starch hydrolysed reached its peak at 120 min of digestion and after which, a reduction steps in as digestion time increases. Equilibrium concentration, hydrolysis index and predicted glycaemic indices of the biscuits reduced as the level of substitution of moringa seed flour increased. It revealed sample E with Equilibrium concentration value of 48.06, hydrolysis index of 51.66% and predicted glycaemic index of 68.07. Thus, the blends of 70:20:10 (WHT:AWF:MSF) which represented sample E could be used as medium glycaemic index food.


    Introduction: Eating disorders are psychiatric disorders that lead to biopsychosocial impairment with high rates of morbidity and mortality in the population. The prevalence of eating disorders in college students is quite significant, especially in health and female courses, associated with poor diet, and the influence of the media on the perfect body, becoming a social problem and public health that should be addressed in the daily lives of health professionals. Objectives: Analyze in literature the risk factors in college students for eating disorders. Methodology: The research took place in the CAPES Periodicals, PubMed and VHL Regional Portal. Descriptors were the terms: “Eating Disorders and Food Intake”, “Risk Factors” and “Students”. Articles published between 2014 and 2018 were included. Results: Of the 3287 articles found, only eleven were included in the review. Evidence was found that eating disorders may result from personal body perception associated with poor diet and excessive alcohol consumption. It can be expressed through the personal need to satisfy the physical image with the psychological, almost always unreachable. Evidence was also found that eating disorders are associated with higher parental education, living in urban areas, eating outside the home and the first two years after college entry. Conclusion: The literature on the interaction between eating disorders and risk factors is still incipient to the detriment of the complexity and scope of the phenomenon. It is also highlighted the need for further investigations on diagnostic and therapeutic teaching strategies of health professionals in order to reduce the morbidity arising from these events.

  • Fast Food: “The Real Costs Never Appear on the Menu”

    Menus, as lists of prepared foods, provides origin of the food items (Thai, Chinese, Continental), restaurant’s mission, chef’s philosophy of cooking, brief idea about food processing, special combo offers along with their cost. The colorful menu or flyers attracts fast food lovers to spend more and more in their favorite restaurants for both its decadent yumminess and its ultra-convenience. Calculation of monetary cost gets more priorities than the actual hidden health costs, as usual. Food that is fried such as in a fast food restaurant is usually cooked in oil that has been heated and used multiple times. One serving in a fast food restaurant may has 100 times the level of aldehydes designated as safe by the WHO. Although there are a growing number of healthier fast food options, most fast food can still be classified as junk food. Eating a poor-quality diet high in junk food is linked to a higher risk of obesity, depression, digestive issues, heart disease and stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and early death.