International Journal of Dental Research and Reviews

  • Marginal and internal fit of fixed prosthodontic constructions: a literature review

    Marginal fit of fixed dental prostheses is determined by the size of the gap between the margin of the restoration and finish line of the prepared tooth. The most important factors influencing marginal and internal fit of fixed dental prostheses are the material used, the type of finish line as well as peculiarities of various technique of restoration fabrication. The objective of the article is to review the literature about the marginal and internal fit of various fixed prosthetic constructions. A review of literature using Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Research Gate database was carried out and 73 articles mostly in English were selected. The keywords were “Computer-aided design, marginal gap, internal fit, marginal fit, and crown adaptation”. Clinically accepted boundary value of marginal gap is considered to be ≤100 μm. However, a number of factors such as milling machine, parameters of bur (diameter, sharpness), software, design preparation, smooth preparation margins and incorporation of rounded line angles on the tooth preparation, the type of finish line, material and fabrication method of the construction and type of impression method should be taken into consideration in order to achieve these results. The perfect marginal and internal fit are the guarantee of construction success and longevity. As a sizeable marginal opening concedes more plaque accumulation, gingival sulcular fluid flow and bone loss, following in microleakage, recurrent caries, periodontal disease and a decrease in the longevity of the prosthetics restorations. Currently used techniques of restoration manufacturing, including constructions manufactured by computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system can provide clinically allowable marginal fit.

  • Minimal Invasive Potential of Three Caries Excavation Methods in Children

    Background: Recently, the concept of minimally invasive (MI) dentistry has emerged. MI calls for the selective removal of heavily infected and irreversibly denatured dentin caused by carious lesions while preserving dentin that is demineralized but not infected. Aim: To compare the minimal invasive potential (MIP) of conventional caries excavation (CCE), caries detection dye (CDD), and fluorescence aided caries excavation (FACE) methods in children. Subjects and Methods: A total of 105 carious primary molars in 43 children were included in this study. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the caries excavation method. Preoperative evaluation of the carious teeth was performed using digital radiography after sealing the cavities with a radiopaque material. Caries excavation was performed using CCE, CDD, or FACE method. The teeth were restored using self-cured glass ionomer. Post-operative radiographic examination was then performed. Pre-operative and post-operative widths and depths for the cavities were assessed. MIP was determined by comparing the prepared-cavity width and depth relative to the initial width and depth of the caries lesion, respectively. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the MIP of examined groups neither after comparing cavity widths at p=0.253 nor depths at p=0.06. FACE showed the highest mean values of MIP potential for cavity widths (1.41±0.36) and depths (2.04±0.74). Conclusions: CCE, CDD, and FACE showed comparable MIP in children.

  • Clinical Evaluation of Self Ligating Versus Conventional Ligating Preadjusted Edgewise Brackets- A Prospective Clinical Study

    Objective: The prospective study was taken up with null hypothesis that there is no difference clinically in treatment efficiency and gingival condition before start of treatment & twelve months after bonding in SLB and CLB system. Materials and Methods: This clinical study include 30 patients, divided into two groups of 15 each were included in the present study. Intraoral photos and study models taken at pre-treatment (T0), 5 weeks (T1), 10 weeks (T2) and 15 weeks (T3). Initial alignment was assessed by using the Little irregularity index (LII) in the mandibular anterior teeth. The subjects were also examined for bleeding potential of the tissues by using Gingival Index (GI). Results: The mean initial irregularity (MII) score for SLB T0, T5, T10 and T15 was 5.867, 2.252, 0.516 and 0.039. MII score for CLB T0, T5, T10 and T15 was 6.000, 3.630, 1.589 and 0.327. A two sample t-test revealed gap of 4.02% was statistically significant (T= 2.80, 0.012). This data suggests that total alignment change of mandibular arch from T 0 to T 15 was better in SLB compared to CLB group. The mean increase of GI with SLB system was 0.183 while for CLB were equal to 0.98. This difference of GI between SLB and CLB before and after twelve months of bonding was statistically significant (T= -2.96, P value=0.010). Conclusion: The present study could facilitate the orthodontist to compare the potential benefits of SLB over the CLB system that facilitate less gingival bleeding and increase in alignment efficiency.

  • Knowledge about Emergency Management of Avulsed Tooth Amongst Medical Students: a Questionnaire Based Study

    Introduction: Dental avulsion is an emergency that could happen anytime, anywhere and medical health professionals are the first to whom parents usually take their children to seek emergency treatment. Therefore, medical health professionals should have adequate basic knowledge regarding its management. Aim: This study was conducted to assess basic knowledge regarding emergency management of avulsed tooth amongst medical students. Method: This cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was carried out amongst 150 medical students consisting of customized 10 multiple choice questions based on basic knowledge about and preferred methods of managing avulsed tooth. Results: The results showed that most of them knew what avulsion is but almost 50% of them responded that they will refer or call for help from Dental surgeon. Only 30% had knowledge about basic and first aid management that is immediate repositioning of avulsed tooth in its socket. Conclusion: The medical students have inadequate knowledge about primary management of avulsion. They should be trained in this aspect so that they can manage such emergencies if Dental Surgeon is not available.

  • Apical Vapour Lock Effect -Phenomenon related to Endodontic Irrigation– A Review

    Complete debridement of the root canal system is a primary requirement for the successful root canal treatment 1. Thus for optimum disinfection , a thorough cleaning and shaping is mandatory ; so the current concept in Endodontics is ‘ Files shape, irrigants clean’2. Even with the use of rotary instrumentation, the nickel-titanium instruments currently available only act on the central body of the canal, leaving canal fins, isthmi, and cul-de-sacs untouched after completion of the preparation. These areas might harbor tissue debris, microbes, and their by-products, which might prevent close adaptation of the obturation material and result in persistent periradicular inflammation 3,4.So the irrigants must be brought into direct contact with the entire canal wall surfaces for effective action, particularly for the apical portions of small root canals. Recently, concern has been expressed about the possible presence of gas bubbles in the apical part of the root canal that could block irrigant penetration and may affect effective debridement.This phenomenon is termed as‘apical vapor lock’5 (AVL). It is also called as Dead Water Zone.

  • Comparison Of Uvulo-Glosso-Pharyngeal Dimensions Between Different Vertical Skeletal Facial Patterns

    Background: The relationship between pharyngeal airway and dentoskeletal structures have been reported in various studies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the uvuloglossopharyngeal dimensions in various vertical patterns in skeletal class I subjects. Methodology: The study sample consisted of pre-treatment Lateral cephalogram of 135 subjects (63 males and 72 females, aged 14-21 years) with skeletal class I pattern which were divided into three groups of normodivergent, hypodivergent and hyperdivergent facial patterns with 45 subjects in each group. The inter-group statistical comparison across the three study groups was done using Chi-Square test and the inter-group statistical comparison of medians was done using Kruskal-Wallis H test [non-parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Results: The distribution of median for upper airway such as SPAS, MAS, IAS, VAL did not differ significantly across three study groups (P-value>0.05 for all). The vertical position of hyoid bone (HH1) was significantly lower in Group 2 compared to Groups 1 and Group 3 (P-value

  • Correlating Cranial Base Flexure And Posterior Cranial Base Length With Vertical Skeletal Patterns

    Background: The cranial base has pivotal role in development of craniofacial structures. Both anterior and posterior cranial bases and the angle between the two affect the position of maxilla and mandible. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of cranial base angle and posterior cranial base length in various vertical facial types. Methodology: The study sample consisted of pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of 135 subjects (63 males and 72 females, age 14-21 years) with skeletal class I pattern. These were divided into three groups of normodivergent, hypodivergent and hyperdivergent facial types with 45 subjects in each group. Two angular parameters i.e Saddle angle (NSAr) and Articular angle (SArGo) and one linear parameter Posterior cranial base length (SAr) were used in cephalometric analysis. Inter-group comparison of means of all measurements were studied using ANOVA with Bonferroni’s correction for multiple group comparison. Results: Saddle angle and articular angle did not show significant difference across three study groups. Highly significant difference in posterior cranial base length was observed between hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Saddle angle and Posterior Cranial base length showed significant positive correlation in hypodivergent whereas Saddle angle and Articular angle showed significant negative correlation in hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. Conclusion: The cranial base angle does not affect the vertical facial patterns but posterior cranial base length does affect the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent facial types. Cranial base angle found to correlate with posterior cranial base in hypodivergent facial pattern whereas Saddle angle correlated negatively with articular angle in both hyperdivergent and hypodivergent facial types.

  • A review on the performance of the proactive implant surface

    Objective: to review the performance of the proactive hydrophilic implant system in the implantology practice. Materials and methods: a thorough literature review took place by looking into pubmed and google scholar searching engines. A total number of 310 articles were found. The aim was to review the literature commenting on the clinical and microlevel performances. Hence, 21 articles were included to cover three major categories which are: in Microlevel (group A), clinical (group B), and performance with grafting materials (group C). Results: Group A; showed stable osseointegration indicating the efficacy of the hydrophilic proactive surface. Group B; indicated favourable outcomes in managing cases of immediate implants with successful variable loading protocols. Group C; showed favourable reactions with grafting and non-grafting groups. Conclusion: It seems that the proactive implant surface is showing promising results with acceptable supporting literature so far.

  • Perceptions of Endodontic Treatment Outcomes Provided by Undergraduate Students and Endodontic Specialists

    Introduction: A growing interest from investigators and practitioners have been registered in assessing patients’ quality of life and satisfaction with effectiveness of provided dental care. Specific treatment-related satisfaction measures have been introduced to recognize individuals’ perceptions of root canal treatment outcomes. Methods: Two hundred systemically healthy patients with irreversible inflammation of the dental pulp were endodontically treated and filled in anonymously a questionnaire consisting of two parts: 1) personal and demographic information (age, gender, occupation, education, income), and 2) seven semantic differential scales evaluating personal satisfaction two weeks after root canal treatment was completed. Level of satisfaction was assessed by assigning scores from 1 to 10 along continuous bipolar scales, separately for each treated tooth. Results: Very high overall satisfaction was registered in both groups with the scores being higher for patients treated by students but the difference was insignificant (p=0.068). Patients were significantly more pleased with their root canal treatment provided by specialists followed by undergraduate students (p=0.017). On the contrary, satisfaction with treatment cost was significantly lower for those treated by specialists compared to values registered by students’ patients (p< 0.0001). Conclusions: Endodontic treatment provided by undergraduate students and endodontic specialist resulted in an extremely high level of overall satisfaction almost equal for both groups. Treatment painfulness, postoperative esthetics and chewing ability were highly appreciated regardless of the treatment provider but perception of postoperative pleasantness was significantly higher for specialists. Significantly greater satisfaction with the treatment cost was registered in the group treated by students.

  • A Simplified Method for Fabrication of Interim Prosthesis for Maryland Bridge

    An edentulous space in the mandibular anterior region can produce a psychological impact on the young patient and is one of the most difficult esthetic challenges in dentistry. With the advent of resin cements , Maryland bridge are highly effective treatment option in these situations resulting in high levels of patient satisfaction. Provisional restorations are not much documented for Maryland bridge and needs its due consideration while treatment planning. This clinical report describes an efficient and simplified technique for provisionalisation of Maryland bridge.