The mouth is a natural reservoir of several microorganisms resulting from various ecological determinants, being conducive to contagion, as it is an open system for contamination, to which the oral health team is exposed. This microbiota, in general, is in harmony with the host and is quite relevant, as it contributes to the development of the mucous immune system. However, local and/or systemic changes can result in imbalance and clinical manifestation of diseases in the mouth, as reported in this chapter, about coronavirus, hepatitis, herpes, varicella-zoster, infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, ebola, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Oral hygiene is essential to maintain harmony between normal oral microbiota and external contamination, and, as is known, the mouth is part of the digestive and respiratory system and, in this moment of the lethal and quite contagious SARS-VOC 2 pandemic, the dental practice needs to reinforce biosafety care and reduce the vulnerability of staff and patients, in order to favor the good practices of home dental care, outpatient and/or hospital assistance.
Computational modelling signifies the simulation of real life layout in a virtual domain by the transfiguration of physical structures into numerical models, which then is processed into objects. It has restructured the field of Bio – medical engineering in the past 40 years. It has conceptualised the transposition of the visual to the visual-tactile portrayal of anatomical objects leading to a new kind of reciprocity called ‘touch to comprehend’, paving way for educational approaches. This advent of Rapid prototyping has opened new prospects in medical field, especially dentistry with its accuracy and speed. Rapid prototyping is an additive manufacturing technology that produces prototype models by addition of materials in a layer by layer process. With new researches coming to the fore for molding materials and the forming process of RP techniques, this technology has become trendsetter in dental prosthesis fabrication. This article provides a Narrative review of the evolution and its foray into Prosthodontics through the multiple technological options it has panned.
Objective: The objective of this work is to analyze the use of zirconia crowns in primary teeth, their advantages, evolution and acceptance within pediatric dentistry. Methods: An integrative review was carried out using the SciELO, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, with the objective of analyzing the use of zirconia crowns in primary teeth, including 13 articles, following the inclusion and exclusion criteria previously determined. Results: The literature shows that zirconia crowns provide a well-polished surface and less bacterial adhesion, allowing to prevent plaque accumulation and pigmentation, reducing gingival inflammation associated with rehabilitated primary teeth. Zirconia crowns have superior mechanical properties related to other types of ceramics, which gives durability and resistance to fracture and wear, in addition to a natural aesthetic to the rehabilitated tooth. Conclusion: It is concluded, therefore, that pediatric dentistry has benefited a lot from this restorative revolution that uses the use of zirconia crowns in children.
Frequently affected teeth by different types of iatrogenic perforations made during dental training in Bulgaria
Background: One of the reasons for endodontic treatment failure is iatrogenic perforation. That is why it is important to provide adequate endodontic education for graduating young practitioners. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the most common locations of the iatrogenic perforations made by last year students in the Dental Faculty in Sofia, Bulgaria, to note the association of particular errors with particular teeth and to determine how this information can improve their education. Methods: All patient records of last-year students for 2015 and 2016 were examined. Perforations were diagnosed by radiography, and also confirmed clinically. Results: From all 778 teeth 30 incidents of root perforations were found: 10 in 2015 and 20 in 2016. More perforations were found in upper posterior teeth- 80% of all the perforations made in 2015, and 45% of all registered perforations in 2016. For the entire period of the research perforation frequency in upper molars, and in upper anterior teeth were found to be significantly higher than in other group of teeth. In academic 2015 year, 8 of the perforations (80%) were furcal. In 2016 year, 11 (55%) of all perforations were apical. Conclusions: More in-depth knowledge of endodontic anatomy , and also more strict supervision on students’ tasks are needed, especially regarding standard root canal treatment on molar teeth.
The most commonly used procedure for root surface debridement is mechanical scaling and root planing using hand instruments. Periodontal files are used as a part of treatment introduced in subgingivally pockets. The difficult lies in stablishing an analogy of this depth measurement to the probe by a PCP 12 and the corresponding input of this files at the same distance. The authors present new files, similar to Hirschfeld, have been modified with external marking at 12mm, allowing the Periodontist this analogy, and facilitating the process. On the other hand a specific small diameter PHenriques 6 and PHenriques 7 files, to instrument more easily this complex region. Consist of a series of 3 blades, and its sharp edges in 270 degrees around the active tip, reaching the root trunk, fornix and neighbor´s surfaces. They are extremely useful especially in Class III involvement and sharpening in the same way as conventional files.
Since discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted for craniofacial rehabilitation aims. Craniofacial implants start to be popular for craniofacial reconstruction and rehabilitation. Craniofacial implants become as revaluation in rehabilitation fields, to day even large facial defect can be reconstructed via this surgical –prosthetic technique. The aim of this review is to explain and clarify the indications and techniques for such procedure.
Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacture or in short CAD/CAM technology is a revolutionary method which was utilized in dentistry in order to achieve more efficient and precise work that not only reduce time but also produce more patient satisfaction on the short and long term. Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) can be done by utilizing a specially designed software and an intraoral scanners or laboratory scanners which can construct a three dimensional image of scanned mouth or impression. Computer-Aided-Manufacture (CAM) on the other hand, can be done by subtractive or additive manufacturing. Subtractive manufacturing is done either by spark erosion or by a milling machine. Additive manufacturing on the other hand is made by layering technique in a step by step vertical buildup of the object or restoration. This review illustrates the indications, advantages, and limitations of CAD/CAM technology in construction of different types of restorations and the possible future of this technology.
Positive Effect of Injectable Platelet Rich Fibrin (i-PRF) on Vital Bone Formation in Graft Reconstruction of the Mandible: A Histologic and Histomorphometric Study
In this clinical case series, relative centrifugation force (RCF) and centrifugation time (CT) were reduced to produce the liquid form of platelet rich fibrin (i-PRF). The goal of this study is to histologically evaluate if the liquid form of PRF has a positive effect on vital bone formation in the grafted mandible using mineralized freeze-dried allogeneic bone. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients completed immediate bone grafting after a non-restorable endodontically treated molar tooth was extracted in preparation for future implant surgery. Each bone graft was augmented with i-PRF. To process i-PRF, relative centrifugation force (RCF) was reduced from 2,700 RPM to 700 RPM (60g). Centrifugation time was reduced from 12 minutes to 3 minutes. After an average bone graft healing time of 8 to 12 weeks, bone core samples were obtained at the time of implant surgery for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Forty-two bone cores were harvested at the time of implant surgery for histological and histomorphometric analysis. The liquid form of PRF resulted in greater percentages of vital bone formation (average 87.4 %) compared to the existing published literature. Conclusion: i-PRF resulted in greater percentages of new vital bone formation compared to the published literature. This could be due to the continuous slow release and delivery of growth factors in i-PRF. Further clinical use of iPRF is needed to evaluate the full potential of bone regeneration.
The cleft lip nasal deformity has been well described in respect to the facial aesthetics and plays an important role in social interactions. Rhinoplasty for patients with CLP is of immense challenge for the basic fact of the complexity in pathology, and also variation of growth potential of individual. The surgical correction for treatment of variation in nose morphology in patients with CLP is Rhinoplasty, which becomes a challenging task, keeping in mind the difficulty in evaluating the outcome. Many methods are available in the literature for nasal assessment evaluation in patients with CLP. However due to the pros and cons of different methods, aesthetic evaluation of the nose among these patients remain problematical. The purpose of this literature review was to overview the different nasal assessment methods in patients with CLP so as to analyse and identify the most objective method for such evaluation in order plan the treatment and to compare the aesthetic results.
Clinical governance is a comprehensive approach that is not given its weight as a subject at the undergraduate level because either the syllabus is full or there is not enough time. This article aims to facilitate the understanding of clinical governance in the dental office by drawing modules. These color modules and the ease of structure will tempt the eyes of undergraduate dental students. The benefit is also extended to include the general population to inform them about the importance of dental hospitals to practice a high level of clinical care, thus increasing awareness. Improving the quality of life depends on policies and procedures built on the contemporaneous reliable, evidence-based information. The teaching of clinical governance and legislation and ethics at the undergraduate level should be included in the dental syllabus. This article will cast a glance at the future of professionalism against the background of increasing expectations from patients.