American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Servant leadership, Institutional Health and Effectiveness in Ethiopian Teacher Training Colleges

    The study was aimed to examine the practices and correlates among servant leadership, institutional health and effectiveness in Ethiopian Teacher Training Colleges. It was descriptive survey and correlation study conducted in sample teacher training colleges. In sum, 160 participants consisted of 52 academic staff (male=38; female=14), 54 administrative staff (male=23; female=31) and 54 students (male=43; female=11) were participated. Stratified and simple random sampling methods were employed to select samples. Mean, t-test, correlations and regressions were used to analyze data. In addition, the results were significant at p

  • Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo- A Critical Analysis

    Sri Aurobindo , was an Indian nationalist, freedom fighter, philosopher, yogi, guru and poet. He joined the Indian movement for freedom from British rule, for a while became one of its influential leaders and then turned into a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. Swami Vivekananda, known in his pre-monastic life as Narendranath Datta, was born in an affluent family in Kolkata. His father,Vishwanath Datta, was a successful attorney with interests in a wide range of subjects, and his mother, Bhuvaneshwari Devi, was endowed with deep devotion, strong character and other qualities. A precocious boy, Narendra excelled in music, gymnastics and studies. By the time he graduated from Calcutta University, he had acquired a vast knowledge of different subjects, especially Western philosophy and history. These, then the Shâstras, the Guru, and the Mother¬land are the three notes that mingle themselves to form the music of the works of Vivekananda .The present paper brings out the critical analysis of the philosophies of the two great spiritual philosophers and writers in a comparative style.

  • Extent of Application of Strategic Management Control in the Management of Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State

    The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the extent of application of strategic management control in the management of tertiary institutions in Anambra State. It was a descriptive survey research guided by one research question and one null hypothesis. All the four public and private universities in Anambra State of Nigeria were studied. The population of the study comprised two-hundred (200) respondents while the sample of the study comprised one hundred and fifteen (115) respondents made up of all the twenty (20) core management staff, thirty (30) Deans selected through purposive sampling technique and sixty-five (65) HODs selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique using 50 percent of the total population of the HODs. The instrument for data collection was researchers-developed questionnaire titled “Strategic Control Application Questionnaire” (SCAQ). The reliability of SCAQ was determined using 20 respondents from tertiary institutions in Ebonyi State. Cronbach alpha statistics was used to measure the internal consistency of the items which yielded the means of 0.83. The researchers personally administered copies of the instrument on the respondents in their respective institutions. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviations and ANOVA. The findings of the study indicated among others that strategic management control was applied to a low extent in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. It was among others recommended that the ministry of education should attempt organizing for managers regular workshops, short courses and seminars on strategic management control to enable them grasp the fundamentals and have confidence in managing strategically and that NUC should ensure that strategic management control is included in its criteria for accrediting tertiary institutions.

  • Nutrition Attitudes and Information Levels of Football Referees

    This study aims at revealing the changes in nutrition attitude and knowledge levels of football referees. 130 referees actively serving as Candidate, Provincial and Regional Referees in Izmir, Konya, Aksaray and Niğde provinces constituted the sample group of the study. The personal information form was used in obtaining the socio-demographic information, and the nutrition knowledge and attitude scale developed by Ertürk (2010) was used in determination of the nutrition attitude and knowledge. The variance and homogeneity of the data were tested, “Independent Samples t Test” was used for binary comparisons, “One Vay Anowa” for differences between groups in multiple comparisons, and “Tukey” test for the determination of variation sources. The nutritional attitudes of the provincial and district referees were higher than those of the candidate referees and the nutritional information of the candidate referees were higher than the provincial and district referees and this change was statistically found to be significant (P


    Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as AIDS. This stage is often also associated with weight loss. HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV.

  • Domestic Violence Against Women in the Effutu Municipalityin the Central Region of Ghana: Implications for Counselling

    The study investigated the prevalence of domestic violence within the Effutu Municipality, it also examined how counselling programmes can assist in addressing domestic violence within the municipality. The study employed a cross sectional survey design and collected both quantitative and qualitative data. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of 300 respondents for the quantitative study, while purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of 12 interviewees for the qualitative aspect of the study. Quantitative data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential analysis while qualitative data was analysed using content and thematic analyses. The study revealed that Christians and traditionalists differed in their views with regards to cultural and life-time perceptions about domestic violence. Additionally, educational level attained also influenced respondents’ perceptions on domestic violence against women in the Effutu Municipality. It was also revealed that though, there are institutions that offer services to reduce or forestall the incidence of domestic violence; both victims and perpetrators did not receive any counselling in any form. It is therefore recommended that Effutu municipal assembly hire professionally trained counsellors, and attach them to the various institutions that deal with issues bordering on domestic violence.

  • An Assessment of Quality Issues in the provision of Early Childhood Development B in Zimbabwe

    The study sought to assess the quality of service delivery for the Early Childhood Development B (ECD B) programme in Zimbabwe. The study covered all the ten provinces of Zimbabwe and adopted both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach was largely used to elicit views on quality provision of ECD B in Zimbabwe through the use of Focus Group Discussions, interviews, document analysis and observations. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from key informants such as head teachers, teachers-in-charge and teachers. The population from which the sample was drawn included all primary schools, Education officials at district, provincial and head office levels as well as registered ECD B centres in Zimbabwe. Random, convenience and purposive sampling procedures were used to select the study sample. The study used two types of quality indicators for Early Childhood Development programmes namely structural and process quality indicators. According to Lamb (2000) structural quality indicators of ECD programmes include: teacher-pupil ratio (number of children per teacher), qualifications, experience and working conditions of teachers. Process quality indicators of ECD programmes include: the physical environment (consisting of indoor and outdoor facilities), curriculum and assessment. Findings revealed that quality is compromised because most ECD B classes in Zimbabwe are manned by unqualified teachers because qualified teachers are still very few. Teacher effectiveness which is brought about by knowledgeable and qualified teachers is a key component of quality ECD B provision. The study also revealed that it is a challenge to get qualified teachers to work in poor rural and otherwise difficult-to-reach communities thus compromising the provision of quality ECD B in these areas. The teacher-pupil ratio at ECD B level in most parts of Zimbabwe is high, that is, it is way above the stipulated ratio of 1:20. A desk study of the Zimbabwean ECD curriculum indicates…

  • Critical Thinking Skill and Academic Achievement Development in Nursing Students: Four-year Longitudinal Study

    Many studies have demonstrated that critical thinking skill increases the academic achievement (Tümkaya, 2011) and improves problem-solving skills (Bowles, 2000; Küçükgüçlü and Kanbay, 2011) and that students with high critical thinking scores are more successful in professional practices (Bowles, 2000). In addition to these, critical thinking skills take an important place in terms of nursing education as they enable providing reliable, effective and quality nursing care (Daly, 1998; Oerman, 1998; Paul and Heaslip, 1995). It is observed that university education, which constitutes the step before individuals go into the professional life, does not develop critical thinking skills adequately although it has an important function in the personal and professional lives of individuals (Kanbay et al., 2012, Kanbay and Okanlı, 2017). Many studies have shown that critical thinking skills of university students are at a low level (Kantek et al., 2010; Akkuş et al., 2010; Arslan et al., 2009; Bulut et al., 2009) or generally at a medium level (Beşer and Kıssal, 2009; Küçükgüçlü and Kanbay 2011; Korkmaz, 2009; Şen, 2009; Çetin, 2008; Kanbay et al., 2013). Critical thinking skills enable individuals to question and accept the information and to make effective decisions by developing alternative points of view. In this respect, individuals should gain critical thinking skills to be able to critically approach the information at all stages of education from pre-school education to higher education (Akça and Taşçı, 2009). This can only be achieved through an educational system aimed at critical thinking (Kökdemir, 2003). For this reason, critical thinking should be explained and developed in the objectives of higher education programs (Ennis, 1997). Based on this whole literature, critical thinking was thought to have significant effects on nursing education, and the answers to the following questions were sought by planning this study with the aim of determining the development…

  • Measure for Assesing Religious Teacher’s Perception of Intention to Adopt Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

    This study was conducted to produce empirical evidence of validity and reliability of a set of questionnaire. Questionnaire drawn from the results of previous studies and the validity of the tests will determine whether all aspects of the construct domain were represented, thus ensuring the high objectivity level of the questionnaire. In addition, an alternative approach was used to assess the discriminant validity, using heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations. The study empirically proves that the questionnaire used is unchanged by culture. This is important because if not, its use will be restricted to a population in which the questionnaire was developed.

  • Analysis on Occupational Self-Efficacy of Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers

    In this study, the purpose is to analyze the self-efficacy beliefs of the elementary mathematics and science teachers according to a group of variables. For this purpose, “Teacher Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale” developed by Kahyaoğlu and Yangın (2007) and personal information form that is composed by the researcher are used as the data collection tool to measure the self-efficacy of teachers. The study is conducted in the spring semester of the 2016-2017 school year. The sample of the study consists of a total of 91 teachers, of which 44 are Elementary Mathematics Teacher and 47 are Science Teacher serving in public schools in Bitlis’s Tatvan district. For the analysis of the collected data, the unpaired t-test and ANOVA were applied. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that occupational self-efficacy levels of prospective teachers are on “Very Efficient” level. In addition, it is determined that there are no statistically significant differences in mean scores of teachers’ occupational self-efficacy beliefs in terms of gender, education type, and the graduated department but in terms of the types of high schools which they graduated from. Only this variable shows a statistically significant difference.