American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Is Teacher Education level and Experience impetus for student achievement? Evidence from public secondary schools in Kenya

    This study established whether advanced degrees and years of teaching experience are associated with student science achievement gains in Public Secondary schools in Kenya. In particular, the study differentiated education level into advanced degrees in Science and advanced degrees in any major, and experience into general years of teaching experience and years teaching Science in general and at grade 12. Teaching quality factors drawn from dynamic model of teacher effectiveness were utilized in the model to establish if they mediated the effect of teacher’s education level and experience on student achievement. A sample of 610 respondents was sampled consisting of 570 respondents consisting of 450 students and 120 grade 12 Science teachers was selected from 40 public secondary schools in the county.2-Level Hierarchical linear modelling was used to disentangle variance associated with students nested within classes and teachers nested within four categories of high rank and low rank schools in the County. The study found no variation in teacher qualification ,between high and low ranking secondary schools with respect to education level(X2=0.324; df =2, P=0.065, and experience (X2=0.824, df=3, P=0.066), but only with a small difference in grade 12 experience between low ranked and high ranked schools(X2=0.824, df=3, P=0.046). With regards to proportion of variance due to nested data, 20.8% of variance in student achievement was amongst student while the rest was within classrooms (teachers). With regards to teacher experience, teachers with more than two years of grade 12 experience will improve student scores by 1.15 units while those teachers without such experience will improve scores by 0.83. With regards to education level, a teacher with advanced degree chemistry or education will improve student achievement gains by 0.085 units, while that with no advanced degree in any major will result to only 0.067 unit increase in student chemistry achievement. The…

  • Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors’ Task Performance in Secondary Schools in Anambra State

    This study investigated teachers’ perception of guidance counselors’ task performance in secondary schools in Anambra State. Four research questions guided the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population comprised 6,857 teachers from 257 public secondary schools in Anambra State. A sample of 685 was drawn using proportionate stratified random sampling techniques. Data was collected using a questionnaire of 30 items developed by the researcher and titled ‘’Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors Task Performance Questionnaire’’ (TPCTPQ) which was validated by experts. Internal consistency reliability index of 0.82 was obtained for the entire instrument using Cronbach’s alpha. Data analysis was done using mean and standard deviation for the research questions, while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. The finding reveals among others that Teachers’ Perception towards guidance counsellors Task Performance is high. Male and female teachers’ perception towards guidance counsellors’ tasks performance is high. Teachers in urban and rural areas perceive guidance counsellors’ tasks performance as being high. The study also found that teachers in urban and rural areas did not differ significantly in their perception of guidance counsellors’ task performance. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that there is need to have professionally trained school counselors for effective delivery of guidance and counseling services in the schools. There is also need for sufficient facilities and finances for effective delivery of guidance and counseling tasks.

  • The Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of ICT as a Tool for Early Childhood Development Teaching and Learning: A Case for Women’s University in Africa in-Service Student Teachers

    The purpose of this study was to find out the teachers` perceptions on the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as a tool for teaching and learning at Early Childhood Development (ECD) level. A sample of 12 female in –service student teachers from the Women’s University in Africa was used. The study utilised both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected through the use of a questionnaire while qualitative data was gathered through Focus Group Discussions with 12 in- service student teachers to gather in –depth information on the use of ICTs as a tool for ECD teaching and learning. The research findings revealed that the student teachers concurred that ICTs are indeed an emerging tool in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. Student teachers revealed that they perceive ICTs to be good since they promote child-centered learning. ICT motivates children to learn using multi-sensory displays that accommodate their individual differences . The findings also revealed that ICTs assist in the simulation of the outside world in a way that saves time and resources. However, lack of resources and lack of ICT knowledge by the authorities in the schools were cited as major barriers to the integration of ICTs in the ECD curriculum. The study concluded by recommending that professional development workshops should be held from time to time so as to improve practice. A variety of ICT gadgets should be provided in schools. Policy provisions which promote the use of ICTs should be put in place by the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education. Personnel should be allocated to assist in the public use of ICT tools and materials.

  • Integration through Peers – A Study on the Integration of Migrant Children in Pupil Networks in four German Secondary Schools

    This paper deals with the integration of migrant children in informal communication networks in four diffenrent schools in Germany. The basic assumption is that these networks can serve as an indicator for the networking and embedding that take place within the class community and therefore can be used to investigate the integration of pupils with a migrant background. The initial results of our network analytical study reveal that the pupils with a migrant background are well integrated into the class networks. The study discloses that the migrant background does not serve as a conclusive characteristic of the pattern of class networks. The pupils are more or less networked with each other regardless of their migrant background, though it did emerge that children and adolescents born abroad, in particular, are far more likely to have outgoing relationships that remain unreciprocated.

  • Same Old Sun, New Shadows: A Postcolonial and Feminist Reading of Yvonne Vera’s The Stone Virgins

    The article examines the extent to which Vera’s The Stone Virgins can be read as a historiography of post-independence Zimbabwe. Some scholars accuse Vera in The Stone Virgins for fanning tribal friction, polarizing the nation and subverting the official war narrative. Our primary purpose is to explore the text to foreground the subtle discursive strategies as the text comments on the national historiography of Zimbabwe as a postcolonial nation-state. The article attempts to ascertain whether the textual narrative is ‘like the sun’, whether the text candidly offers alternative narrative by way of ‘writing in’ the elided aspects of the postcolonial experience (telling it blunt), or it subtly negotiates for the right to remember, heal and belong (telling it slant). The present article is therefore guided by two objectives, that is, to explore whether Vera’s The Stone Virgins can be regarded as historiography of post-independent Zimbabwe and also to examine whether the novel negotiates for closure and healing or simply opens up old wounds to fan social strife and polarity.

  • Servant leadership, Institutional Health and Effectiveness in Ethiopian Teacher Training Colleges

    The study was aimed to examine the practices and correlates among servant leadership, institutional health and effectiveness in Ethiopian Teacher Training Colleges. It was descriptive survey and correlation study conducted in sample teacher training colleges. In sum, 160 participants consisted of 52 academic staff (male=38; female=14), 54 administrative staff (male=23; female=31) and 54 students (male=43; female=11) were participated. Stratified and simple random sampling methods were employed to select samples. Mean, t-test, correlations and regressions were used to analyze data. In addition, the results were significant at p

  • Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo- A Critical Analysis

    Sri Aurobindo , was an Indian nationalist, freedom fighter, philosopher, yogi, guru and poet. He joined the Indian movement for freedom from British rule, for a while became one of its influential leaders and then turned into a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. Swami Vivekananda, known in his pre-monastic life as Narendranath Datta, was born in an affluent family in Kolkata. His father,Vishwanath Datta, was a successful attorney with interests in a wide range of subjects, and his mother, Bhuvaneshwari Devi, was endowed with deep devotion, strong character and other qualities. A precocious boy, Narendra excelled in music, gymnastics and studies. By the time he graduated from Calcutta University, he had acquired a vast knowledge of different subjects, especially Western philosophy and history. These, then the Shâstras, the Guru, and the Mother¬land are the three notes that mingle themselves to form the music of the works of Vivekananda .The present paper brings out the critical analysis of the philosophies of the two great spiritual philosophers and writers in a comparative style.

  • Extent of Application of Strategic Management Control in the Management of Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State

    The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the extent of application of strategic management control in the management of tertiary institutions in Anambra State. It was a descriptive survey research guided by one research question and one null hypothesis. All the four public and private universities in Anambra State of Nigeria were studied. The population of the study comprised two-hundred (200) respondents while the sample of the study comprised one hundred and fifteen (115) respondents made up of all the twenty (20) core management staff, thirty (30) Deans selected through purposive sampling technique and sixty-five (65) HODs selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique using 50 percent of the total population of the HODs. The instrument for data collection was researchers-developed questionnaire titled “Strategic Control Application Questionnaire” (SCAQ). The reliability of SCAQ was determined using 20 respondents from tertiary institutions in Ebonyi State. Cronbach alpha statistics was used to measure the internal consistency of the items which yielded the means of 0.83. The researchers personally administered copies of the instrument on the respondents in their respective institutions. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviations and ANOVA. The findings of the study indicated among others that strategic management control was applied to a low extent in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. It was among others recommended that the ministry of education should attempt organizing for managers regular workshops, short courses and seminars on strategic management control to enable them grasp the fundamentals and have confidence in managing strategically and that NUC should ensure that strategic management control is included in its criteria for accrediting tertiary institutions.

  • Nutrition Attitudes and Information Levels of Football Referees

    This study aims at revealing the changes in nutrition attitude and knowledge levels of football referees. 130 referees actively serving as Candidate, Provincial and Regional Referees in Izmir, Konya, Aksaray and Niğde provinces constituted the sample group of the study. The personal information form was used in obtaining the socio-demographic information, and the nutrition knowledge and attitude scale developed by Ertürk (2010) was used in determination of the nutrition attitude and knowledge. The variance and homogeneity of the data were tested, “Independent Samples t Test” was used for binary comparisons, “One Vay Anowa” for differences between groups in multiple comparisons, and “Tukey” test for the determination of variation sources. The nutritional attitudes of the provincial and district referees were higher than those of the candidate referees and the nutritional information of the candidate referees were higher than the provincial and district referees and this change was statistically found to be significant (P


    Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as AIDS. This stage is often also associated with weight loss. HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV.