American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Holistic Global Citizenship Education and Global Entrepreneurship for the Challenge of the 21st Century

    The 21st Century brought global issues the world has never faced before. Climate challenge and destruction of the environment raise the issues of ecological preservation. Poverty and youth unemployment precipitates the issues of social inclusion. Extreme violence and moral hazard bring up the issue of social inclusion. These challenges are interconnected. It cannot solve all of them by improving one of them. Then how can we solve them? It is only possible when we address the fundamental causes. What are the basic causes of challenge? They are mainly originated by man-made and man-induced behavior and characteristics. Humanity stands at the center of these global challenges. The key solution is changing human beings. How can we change human beings? The only solution is education. Through education, we can transform the human mind and tide over the unprecedented 21st Century. However, the current education system does not provide solutions to global challenges. It mainly pursues the economic growth and development. Schools and universities focus on building competences rather concentrate raising human resources to prepare the future. We need a new educational paradigm not only to train expertise, but also to cultivate the mind sets, value and attitudes to engage in global issues. The paradigm should bring the realization that we exist, not merely as an independent person, but interdependent beings mutually interconnected. It should also address interdependence of economy, environment and society, in order to make the world sustainable. Global Citizenship Education (GCED) has received the spot light as a new education paradigm to the formation and cultivation of global citizen. It considers overall global perspectives to open people’s eye and mind to the realities of the world. Hence. It is not only the issue of academy, but also issue of economy, environment and society. It is the issue of all of…

  • Computer self-efficacy and attitudes toward internet usage among library and information science postgraduate students in two library schools in Nigeria

    In integrating computers in higher education, researchers have proposed that positive attitudes toward computers and high computer self-efficacy levels could be important factors in helping students learn computer skills and use computers. It is also expected that LIS Postgraduate students should be knowledgeable and comfortable with electronic resource usage. It is against these backgrounds that this study was conducted. Suvey research design was adopted, the population was Library and Information Science postgraduate students in two selected library schools in Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire, two hundred and thirty nine (239) copiesof questionnaire were administered, two hundred and seven (207) were sucessfully retrieved and found to be useable, representing 86.6% response rate. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferencial statistics. Results showed that in spite of the potentials emerging technologies offers in Library Schools globally, in Nigeria, there is not very evidential that Library Schools are integrating ICTs into their instructions. It was found that among the two library schools studied, there were no operational/functional computer laboratory with internet facilities, access by students were restricted due to limited space as at the time of this study, this go a long way to show that LIS postgraduate students depend solely on their PCs with modem as alternative internet connector or commercial cyber café as the last resort. The above confirmed that there was no computer laboratory with functional internet facilities for postgraduate students as the time of this study. Recommendations for the study include that drastic measures should be taken by LIS educators/administrators to provide computers with functional internet facilities to LIS postgraduate students in their various schools to eliminate any barrier confronting them in order to enhance efficiency and quality of teaching, learning and research services. It was also recommended that other researchers should study…

  • Pyramid Power in Colors

    The infamous ‘pyramid’ question on the Math section of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) was reconsidered. Illustrations in colors are presented with a new possible scoring key. Some practical consequential issues are discussed.

  • Intercultural Marriage, a Social Indicator of Adaptation in Sino-African Civil Union: Case of Guangzhou People’s Republic of China

    Marriage is the union of two peoples and consequently of two families and two cultures. In traditional Chinese society, everybody gets married for the sake of family continuity. This is because bringing forth a child is seen as a contribution to perpetuate family name. It is meant for two as families to seal stronger bonds together. It’s therefore observed that, marriage in Chinese Society is conceived for the families rather than for the sharing love. Consequently, the marriage becomes a social construction. The only credible unions with the eyes of the society were those which linked two individuals presenting some similarities from the social, ethnic, racial, cultural and/or religious. The concept of adaptation and the notion of entropy will be employed the theoretical level to show that mixed marriages are the result of complex processes tending to homogenize populations who are from different cultures but who live in permanent contact. To collect the qualitative, we have used the methods of data-gathering, such as documentary review, individual and institutional interview using the guides of interview.

  • A Study of Classroom Assessment Practices: Challenges and Issues in the Context of Public Secondary Schools of Karachi Pakistan

    This study presents the conceptualized analysis understanding about the current assessment practices and the authentic assessment practices in education and integration of real-world task in classroom assessment. The main focal point of this research is to identify the challenges and issues of classroom assessment practices in the context of public secondary schools of Karachi Pakistan. The research was conducted in Karachi East District. The samples of 100 were gathered randomly from the Government Girls Secondary School Gulshan-e-Iqbal block 6 near NIPA, Government Girls Secondary School University Campus adjacent to Karachi University, Government Boys Secondary school no. 2 near Nursery Flyover, Ghausia Colony, Karachi. The survey questionnaire was developed on current assessment practices. The findings of the study highlight that current assessment practices follow the traditional settings and there is need to integrate different types of activities and feedback trends to make students competent.

  • Is Teacher Education level and Experience impetus for student achievement? Evidence from public secondary schools in Kenya

    This study established whether advanced degrees and years of teaching experience are associated with student science achievement gains in Public Secondary schools in Kenya. In particular, the study differentiated education level into advanced degrees in Science and advanced degrees in any major, and experience into general years of teaching experience and years teaching Science in general and at grade 12. Teaching quality factors drawn from dynamic model of teacher effectiveness were utilized in the model to establish if they mediated the effect of teacher’s education level and experience on student achievement. A sample of 610 respondents was sampled consisting of 570 respondents consisting of 450 students and 120 grade 12 Science teachers was selected from 40 public secondary schools in the county.2-Level Hierarchical linear modelling was used to disentangle variance associated with students nested within classes and teachers nested within four categories of high rank and low rank schools in the County. The study found no variation in teacher qualification ,between high and low ranking secondary schools with respect to education level(X2=0.324; df =2, P=0.065, and experience (X2=0.824, df=3, P=0.066), but only with a small difference in grade 12 experience between low ranked and high ranked schools(X2=0.824, df=3, P=0.046). With regards to proportion of variance due to nested data, 20.8% of variance in student achievement was amongst student while the rest was within classrooms (teachers). With regards to teacher experience, teachers with more than two years of grade 12 experience will improve student scores by 1.15 units while those teachers without such experience will improve scores by 0.83. With regards to education level, a teacher with advanced degree chemistry or education will improve student achievement gains by 0.085 units, while that with no advanced degree in any major will result to only 0.067 unit increase in student chemistry achievement. The…

  • Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors’ Task Performance in Secondary Schools in Anambra State

    This study investigated teachers’ perception of guidance counselors’ task performance in secondary schools in Anambra State. Four research questions guided the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population comprised 6,857 teachers from 257 public secondary schools in Anambra State. A sample of 685 was drawn using proportionate stratified random sampling techniques. Data was collected using a questionnaire of 30 items developed by the researcher and titled ‘’Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors Task Performance Questionnaire’’ (TPCTPQ) which was validated by experts. Internal consistency reliability index of 0.82 was obtained for the entire instrument using Cronbach’s alpha. Data analysis was done using mean and standard deviation for the research questions, while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. The finding reveals among others that Teachers’ Perception towards guidance counsellors Task Performance is high. Male and female teachers’ perception towards guidance counsellors’ tasks performance is high. Teachers in urban and rural areas perceive guidance counsellors’ tasks performance as being high. The study also found that teachers in urban and rural areas did not differ significantly in their perception of guidance counsellors’ task performance. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that there is need to have professionally trained school counselors for effective delivery of guidance and counseling services in the schools. There is also need for sufficient facilities and finances for effective delivery of guidance and counseling tasks.

  • The Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of ICT as a Tool for Early Childhood Development Teaching and Learning: A Case for Women’s University in Africa in-Service Student Teachers

    The purpose of this study was to find out the teachers` perceptions on the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as a tool for teaching and learning at Early Childhood Development (ECD) level. A sample of 12 female in –service student teachers from the Women’s University in Africa was used. The study utilised both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected through the use of a questionnaire while qualitative data was gathered through Focus Group Discussions with 12 in- service student teachers to gather in –depth information on the use of ICTs as a tool for ECD teaching and learning. The research findings revealed that the student teachers concurred that ICTs are indeed an emerging tool in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. Student teachers revealed that they perceive ICTs to be good since they promote child-centered learning. ICT motivates children to learn using multi-sensory displays that accommodate their individual differences . The findings also revealed that ICTs assist in the simulation of the outside world in a way that saves time and resources. However, lack of resources and lack of ICT knowledge by the authorities in the schools were cited as major barriers to the integration of ICTs in the ECD curriculum. The study concluded by recommending that professional development workshops should be held from time to time so as to improve practice. A variety of ICT gadgets should be provided in schools. Policy provisions which promote the use of ICTs should be put in place by the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education. Personnel should be allocated to assist in the public use of ICT tools and materials.

  • Integration through Peers – A Study on the Integration of Migrant Children in Pupil Networks in four German Secondary Schools

    This paper deals with the integration of migrant children in informal communication networks in four diffenrent schools in Germany. The basic assumption is that these networks can serve as an indicator for the networking and embedding that take place within the class community and therefore can be used to investigate the integration of pupils with a migrant background. The initial results of our network analytical study reveal that the pupils with a migrant background are well integrated into the class networks. The study discloses that the migrant background does not serve as a conclusive characteristic of the pattern of class networks. The pupils are more or less networked with each other regardless of their migrant background, though it did emerge that children and adolescents born abroad, in particular, are far more likely to have outgoing relationships that remain unreciprocated.

  • Same Old Sun, New Shadows: A Postcolonial and Feminist Reading of Yvonne Vera’s The Stone Virgins

    The article examines the extent to which Vera’s The Stone Virgins can be read as a historiography of post-independence Zimbabwe. Some scholars accuse Vera in The Stone Virgins for fanning tribal friction, polarizing the nation and subverting the official war narrative. Our primary purpose is to explore the text to foreground the subtle discursive strategies as the text comments on the national historiography of Zimbabwe as a postcolonial nation-state. The article attempts to ascertain whether the textual narrative is ‘like the sun’, whether the text candidly offers alternative narrative by way of ‘writing in’ the elided aspects of the postcolonial experience (telling it blunt), or it subtly negotiates for the right to remember, heal and belong (telling it slant). The present article is therefore guided by two objectives, that is, to explore whether Vera’s The Stone Virgins can be regarded as historiography of post-independent Zimbabwe and also to examine whether the novel negotiates for closure and healing or simply opens up old wounds to fan social strife and polarity.