American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

  • Extent of Implementation of ECE Programme by County Governments: The Case of Public Preschools in Eldoret West Sub-County, Kenya

    Kenya Constitution (2010) devolved the management of Early Childhood Development Education (ECE) to county governments. The 2014 County ECE Education Bill mandated the Country Governments with several responsibilities of managing ECE services. These included ensuring: all schools have a functional feeding programme; safety of all children; more teachers are employed to reduce the teacher-pupil ratio; quality assurance services are provided promptly; teachers undertake professional development courses including those of handling learners with special needs; all preschools are registered; and teachers are appropriately remunerated. However, various challenges continue to undermine implementation of ECE programmes at county level. Emile Durkheim’s Structural Functionalism Theory (1858-1971) informed the study and so points out that an institution should be structured in a way that various bodies are put in place so that each functions on behalf of the society. Findings indicate that Uasin Gishu County Government needs to put in more effort in order boost its current ECE provision services.

  • Instructors Responsiveness to Peer Led Team Learning pedagogical Initiative and Its Contributing Factors in Higher Education Institutions

    This manuscript was intended to investigate instructors’ responsiveness to cooperative learning or PLTL change initiative and its contributing factors such as instructors’ attitude, work culture, leadership styles, and instructional delivery models. The study employed mixed method research design. 91 instructors were participated to fill in 5 point Likert and rating scale item questionnaires. An interview with key informants were conducted. The three HEIs instructors’ responsiveness to PLTL overall mean 2.8254 rested in disagree scale which implies instructors’ responsiveness to cooperative learning or PLTL was below average expectation. Thus, cooperative learning/PLTL pedagogical model application by the three HEIs did not achieve desired learning goals on learners . Transformational and servant leadership styles as well as communal culture showed more prediction and relationship with instructors responsiveness to cooperative learning and PLTL. Positive interdependence, individual and group accountability, interaction, and group process principles of cooperative learning were not implemented in the right way and did not result in desired learning goal. Pre, during and post instruction task categories were poorly implemented. Hence, instructors’ responsiveness to PLTL needs attention of instructors and institutional leaders for its improvement. Adjustments on instructors’ attitude, institutional leadership and culture styles with other situational factors may enhance PLTL practice and performance.

  • Neuroanatomy teaching: an example of active teaching applied to medical formation

    The paradigm shift from traditional teaching to new methodologies faces the challenges of current implementation in universities, especially in health courses where it is necessary to adequately train professionals in ethical and moral aspects for social work and working in teams with social responsibility, with the capacity to adapt to technological challenges and the incessant search for knowledge. Active teaching methodologies are one of the options that can be applied to higher education in order to improve the training of students, preparing them to solve the problems that are bound to present themselves in professional activities. To verify whether or not an active methodology can improve learning within the difficult circumstances of traditional teaching of the neural pathways and structures of the spinal cord and encephalon in the basic discipline of neuroanatomy. Simple materials such as wood, A4 paper, cardboard, colored pencils or pens, colored threads and adhesive tapes were used to produce three-dimensional models that represent the pathways and structures of the medulla, brain stem, cerebellum and brain. The students were divided into groups of 5 and built the models after studying the textbook, internet sites and atlas. Another process was the condensing of various data to construct structure schemes, with free access to the websites in all cases. The models were made and studied, as well as the schemes. Spontaneous information from the students showed positive acceptance of the method, with few negative points being cited, at least not directly to the professor. The use of three-dimensional model constructions, two-dimensional schemes and digital technology in the teaching of neuroanatomy, integrated with an active methodology process, allowed the students to gain autonomy in the studies and develop a more comprehensive view of the content, to the extent that they felt satisfied in seeing the final model generated by their…

  • Perspective of Teachers on the Influence of Textbook Ratio on Quality Academic Achievement among Girls in Secondary Education in Kisumu County

    A number of studies both quantitative and qualitative have attempted to find out causes of challenges of low achievement in mathematics among girls. There was therefore need to conduct a study to establish the influence of textbook ratio as an independent variable on academic achievement in mathematics among girls at form four level in secondary schools in Kisumu County. Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examination results of girls who sat for the examinations between 2010 and 2014 constituted the dependent variable. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of textbook ratio on girls’ academic achievement in mathematics at secondary level. Correlation research design was applied to examine the degree of influence between the independent and dependent variable using statistical data. The study was conducted in Kisumu County Kenya. The target population of the study consisted of 142 public secondary schools which presented female candidates for KCSE between 2010 and 2014, 142 Principals, 142 Heads of mathematics department and 390 mathematics teachers who taught the girls under study. Stratified random sampling was applied whereby schools were categorized as girls’ secondary schools and mixed secondary schools. Purposive sampling was done to select all the 18 girls’ secondary schools in Kisumu County while random Sampling was used to select 38 out of 124 mixed secondary schools in Kisumu County. The sample constituted 39% of the study population. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis guide. Instruments of data collection were validated by the researcher’s supervisors and reliability of the instrument was established through test retest method by carrying out a pilot study in 5 schools which were not part of the study sample. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages, means, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis. Qualitative data from interview…

  • Education Policy in South Sudan: Between the Peace Agreement, the Armed Conflict, the Villages and The Camps for the Internally Displaced People

    The government of South Sudan is struggling to organize the education system of this new country during the war that ended with the signing of peace agreement in 2005. Initiating the educational policy, reinforcing the education administration, creating a practical curriculum and training teachers are the basic problems needed to solve to insure a good learning future for all. But while searching for the solution to these crucial problems, another rebellion broke up from the sharing power between the president and the vice-president since 2013 undermining the success plan according to the international education plan of education for all, EFA. This war sent many adults and children in the camps where there are no educational structures welcomed by a deep poverty which obliged everybody to lose or to restart their life full of hopeless.

  • Training mode and advantages of American masters in clinical psychology

    This paper makes a systematic introduction to the objective, mode and advantages of the training of American masters in clinical psychology. The advantages are mainly reflected in diversified teaching evaluation methods, emphasizing comprehensive ability cultivation, focusing on the combination with the society, and open and active teaching system. Through the introduction, we hope to provide some references for the training of Chinese masters in clinical psychology.

  • To Study Student Assessment: Explore Issues and Challenges of Practicum Course of B.Ed (Hons) program in Karachi, Pakistan

    Practicum is a tool for teacher’s prospective teacher’s development and it is 15 credit hours course in B.Ed (Hons) program. Numerous studied consider practicum as backbone for effective teacher’s development. The study was designed to explore issues and challenges of student’s assessment in practicum course of B.Ed (Hons).Objectives of study were to explore issues and challenges of student’s assessment in practicum course. Secondly developed applicable mechanism of assessment for practicum course and This study contributed valuable information regarding the implementation of practicum program with assessable assessment criteria. Qualitative method was employed, because it will give more comprehensive result for study. It helped researcher to analyzed problem in multiple ays. qualitative data collected through interview and focus group discussion. Qualitative data coded, categories and finally analyze. The following finding were concluded Lessoning planning and role of supervisor were found strong and effective areas of practicum. Students were using different teaching methods successfully. The university has no lab schools for practicum. Schools were found to be less cooperative. No significant difference was found in the effectiveness level of practicum in different schools.

  • Relationship among Parenting Styles, Prosocial Behavior and School Performance of Students Who are Attending to Grade Seven and Eight State Schools

    The purpose of this study was to examine parenting style, prosocial behavior and students school performance in junior school. In addition, this study attempted to examine the level of parenting styles in their children school performance. Two ten hundred adolescents (Mean age = 14.9 years) measured their own prosocial behaviors, their perceptions of parenting styles of their parents and collected their academic scores from the record office of the schools. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Quantitative analyses (both descriptive and inferential statistics) were used to analyze the obtained data. The data collected were analyzed employing different statistical techniques like correlation, multiple regression, and path analysis. Analysis of the data revealed that parenting styles do have significantly higher involvement in their children’s school performance. Parenting styles have an effect on prosocial behavior of adolescents. Path analysis of the data showed that prosocial behavior has statistically significant contribution to the students school performance. Prosocial behavior also has mediate effect between parenting styles and school performance. The current study has significant implications for parents, schools, government and non government sectors and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents’ positive behaviors and performance and discouraging negative behaviors.

  • Capacity Building Needs of Education Lecturers in Information and Communication Technology in Universities

    This study investigated the capacity building needs of education lecturers in ICTs in universities in Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study, which adopted the descriptive survey design. A sample size of 320 education lecturers was drawn from four universities using stratified random sampling technique, representing 56% of the population. Questionnaire titled “HCBNELICTQ” was validated and the reliability established at 0.92. In analyzing the data, mean scores and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test was used in testing the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that, the capacity building needs of education lecturers on ICT for instructional delivery in universities include: knowledge of operating the ICT devices, good knowledge of handling the devices in teaching, clear skills of manipulating the devices for research and developments, using the devices to store and present academic data, and regular involvement of staff in knowledge updates through appropriate use of new technological devices. Based on the findings of this study, the researchers recommended that education lecturers should cultivate the right attitude to work for effective instructional task performance by maintaining the clarity of job responsibilities in the university system.

  • Intra-Party Primaries in Nigeria’s Democratization Process: a Historical Assessment

    The sprouting character of Nigerian politics from the last quarter of the colonial period to the present is reflected in the changing character of her party politics. Thus, from the ratification of regionalism by Author Richards in 1946 through the short period during the First Republic lasted, two foremost factors shaped the character of intra-party relations/politics: ethno-religious and, to a lesser extent, some feigning of ideological commitment. One of the main features of a political party is its ability not only to contest and win elections, but also to conduct internal elections among its various contestants with the aim of selecting the most suitable candidate that will serve the interest of the party. However, several issues have risen as a result of primary elections among the political parties in Nigeria which has not only affected the political party itself, but as well ruin the smooth running of democracy in the country. This paper historically assesses intra-party primaries in Nigeria’s Democratic process. It questioned the nexus between democracy, party primaries, intra-party conflict and law based union in Nigeria. This paper made use of both primary and secondary data.