American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Agriculture Productivity in India

    The study examined the role of ICT in agricultural productivity in India. It also analyzed the determinants of agricultural productivity. The causality test indicated the existence of long-run causality running from ICT and agricultural growth (AG) to economic growth. It showed bi-directional causality between agricultural growth and GDP. The long-run causality from ICT to AG was, however, uni-directional, implying the significance of ICT in agricultural growth. The determinants of agricultural productivity growth revealed increased machinery usage, investment in ICT, gross domestic capital formation and area under cultivation to be significantly contributing to increased productivity growth. The study suggests strengthening the effective implementation of ICT usage in Indian agriculture.

  • Fish Species Composition and Physico-Chemical Properties of Manjekin Reservoir, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    The objective of the study was to determine fish species composition and physico-chemical properties of Manjekin reservoir between March and June 2013. Fish samples were caught in the reservoir using different fishing gears. The results showed 13 fish species belonging to 9 families present in the reservoir which was considered rich enough for that type of water body. Two families, namely, Characidae and Clariidae constituted the dominant fish species in the reservoir with 34.42% and 8.08% respectively. Other fish species with significant dominance were centropomidae (7.84%) and mormyridae (7.36). The meristic and the morphometric features of fish species caught were also determined. The results of water quality showed variations in the monthly means and station values. Despite these variations, the values obtained were within the recommended range for fish culture, which most of the tropical fresh water fishes could tolerate. There is therefore, the need to evolve strong strategies that could allow effective utilization and management of the reservoir and other water bodies for optimum fish production in the study area.

  • Characterization of Some varieties of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf) under Control and Water Stress Conditions.

    An experiment was implemented at INRAA research station located at Baraki, Algiers with the objective to characterize the behavior of seventeen genotypes of Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf) under water stress conditions. The experimental design adopted is that of split plot design with water regime (irrigated and non irrigated treatments) as main plots and varieties as sub plots and three repetitions. Leaf area, the relative water content (RWC%), chlorophyll content and tillers production were very significantly (p

  • The most frequent and credible source of information on natural health products

    The study looks at the various information sources of natural health products and credibility of these sources. Television was the most frequent source of information on natural health products as half (51%) of the respondents were frequently exposed to the television. Consumers also trusted television most since this source is regulated. Before consumers purchase natural health products however, they consult family and friends since these sources have testimonies that can be trusted. The researcher recommends that the Food and Drugs Authority should implement policies that would check the efficacy of herbal medicine advertised on the television. If possible, the Food and Drugs Authority should implement policies to make efficacy test of herbal medicine advertised on television the same as orthodox medicine. This would enhance trust in consumers of natural health products. Information source from community center and social media should go through some form of registration authorized by the Food and Drugs Authority in order to increase trust of consumers who patronise these sources.

  • Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Agronomical Traits of Lowland adapted Ethiopian Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Genotypes

    The association of traits that may exist between or among sorghum characters is essential for breeders. Therefore, the present study is aimed to analyze and determine the traits having greater association with yield utilizing the correlation and path analysis for different traits of early and medium maturing lowland adapted Ethiopian sorghum genotypes. A total of 110 early and medium maturing sorghum genotypes were used in alpha lattice design which is replicated twice at two locations in 2016 cropping season. The results of correlation analysis suggested that the magnitude of genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients for most of the traits suggesting that there was inherent relationship between these traits. Grain yield showed significant and positive phenotypic correlation with number of heads per plot (r=0.34**), panicle weight (r=0.19**) and hundred grain weight (r=0.21**). The strongest phenotypic association was observed between days to flowering and days to maturity (r= 0.53**) followed by hundred grain weight and plant height (r= 0.47**). In addition path coefficient analysis provides an effective means of finding direct and indirect causes of association.

  • Assessment Of Heritable Variation And Best Combining Genotypes For Grain Yield And Its Attributes In Bread Wheat

    Grain yield in wheat is the resultant of several plant attributes. It is very important to assess heritable variation involved in the inheritance of these attributes in addition to find best combining genotypes. For this purpose, the present study involving 5×5 full diallel analysis was performed. Twenty F1 hybrids along with their parents were planted in field using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in the research area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2015-2016. Plant characters like plant height, flag leaf area, spike length, No. of fertile tillers per plant, No. of grains per spike, No. of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant were studied in this experiment. Mean squares due to GCA were highly significant for all the traits except for spike length for which GCA effects were significant. Mean squares due to SCA and RCA were highly significant for all the characters studied. GCA variance was higher than the SCA variance for spike length and No. of grains per spike exhibiting the predominant role of additive genetic variation in the inheritance of these traits. However, for the characters like plant height, flag leaf area, No. of fertile tillers per plant, No. of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant, the value of SCA variance was higher than the value of GCA variance showing non additive gene action for these traits. The variety Chakwal-50 proved to be the best general combiner for plant height, spike length, No. of spikelets per spike, No. of grains per spike and grain yield per plant. The cross, 9802×Chakwal-86 was the best specific combination for grain yield and most of the yield attributes. The good general and specific combiners are important breeding resources for the initiation…

  • Beef Production and Marketing in Nigeria: Entrepreneurship in Animal Agriculture

    The objective of the study is to survey the current beef production systems and marketing in Nigeria as a means of encouraging entrepreneurship in animal agriculture. One hundred (100) beef producers and marketers were randomly selected for interviews and discussion on beef production and marketing dynamics. Data generated were subjected to descriptive statistics to explain the trend of beef production and marketing in the study area. Beef are produced in the area majorly by pastoralism (75%), home fattening (15%) and government institutions (10%). Market prices of beef cattle in Mubi are determined by visual evaluation which incorporates element of indicators such as breed, age, sex, colour, body condition score, temperament, anus stain and the purpose of buying the animals. Inadequate market information, manipulative ways of market intermediaries, high cost of transportation, lack of infrastructure and credit facilities, fluctuation in demand and supply, cattle rustling and buying of stolen animals, inadequate security within the market place and on the roads and payment of heavy taxes and clearing of checkpoints on the roads formed constraints faced by the producers and marketers. Therefore, beef cattle production and marketing in the study area and Nigeria, in general, are predominantly controlled by intermediaries who benefit more, while primary producers and the end consumers do not get the desired value for their efforts. It is recommended that, since beef cattle production and marketing is not isolated from national and international political and socio-economic policies, the interactions between the producers, marketers and broader sectors should be taken into account in order to generate holistic and reliable data that would inform effective interventions.

  • Effect of between plants space on Seed yield potential of cow pea at Dilla sub- station, Southern Ethiopia

    The study was conducted in Dilla substation with objective of identifying optimum between plant space for optimum seed yield and quality seed. Planting one high yielding which is in seed multiplication status was used as experimental material. Four different between plant space( 10 cm, 20cm, 30cm and 40cm with constant between row space(40cm) were used as experimental treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Plot size was 3 x 2m with an inter-row spacing of 40cm and 1m between replication and plots. Dry matter herbage yield has shown significantly higher in between plant space of 20cm than other treatments (30 and 40 cm) at (p

  • Abiotic Stresses and their Effects, Responses, and Adaptations in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera): Overview of Modern Research: a Review

    Grapevines are cultivated throughout the world and face environmental fluctuations due to changing climatic and abiotic conditions. Temperature stress, hormonal imbalance, salinity and drought stress are the most damaging abiotic stresses that affect the metabolic processes, physiological structure and yield of the plants. This review focuses on the recent advancement in the study of various abiotic stresses on grapevines, their responses and the development of tolerance in them. Grapevines are also very sensitive to these abiotic stresses and have adaptations such as increase in abscisic acid synthesis, ascorbate peroxide concentration and genes expression for the development of resistance to overcome the harsh environment. According to the recent research, the exogenous application of kaolin is very useful in the control of harmful effects of heat stress and hormonal imbalance in grapevines. The study of the different stable genes expression in grapevines under sanity drought and cold stress is also helpful in the synthesis of the most resistant transgenic plants. The further study of the application of the different protective chemicals on the grapevines under abiotic stresses will open new ways for their management. The future genetic study of grapevines for the identification of different reference genes will result in the synthesis of the most stable transgenic plants.

  • The Effect of Different Irrigation Cycles and Salicylic Acid on Certain Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Viola tricolor L.

    The influence of salicylic acid on environmental stress tolerance has been known since many years, but owing to the impact of drought stress on green space plants in Iran, for the first time, was utilized this hormone on viola cornuta Rebel in Shiraz. The experiment was factorial in a completely randomized design, with twelve treatments and four replications in each treatment. Three levels of irrigation cycle [0, 3, and 5 daily] were used for this seasonal flower and four levels of salicylic acid [0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM] were sprayed three times on the violets. The results represented salicylic acid at rates of [0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM], which, in interaction with the levels of the irrigation cycle [3, and 5 daily], can reduce the drought effect. Plant height, leaf area, leaf width, Chlorophyll a and b, proline content, and RWC increased and only the electrolyte leakage diminished. In the traits leaf length and carotenoid content, cannot be seen a noticeable difference; but, generally from the above findings, it can be concluded that salicylic acid declines water-stress effect on the majority of the pansy traits.