American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Cannabis in Nepal and scopes of its re-legalization

    The inception of legalization of Cannabis in America has paved way for the extensive research on this medicinal and religious plant all over the world. Despite the long relationship of Nepalese community with Cannabis since time immemorial, where it used to be used for both medical as well as recreational purposes, its illegalization during 1970s led to significant drop in one of the major source of income for numerous household and their families thereby impacting GDP of the country. Due to the geographical diversity of Nepal with most parts covered by hills and mountains along with the fertile land of plain region, the country has been a home to many landraces of Cannabis and we believe that it has the potential to be one of the major hub of harvest of Cannabis and Cannabis derived pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we have focused on the native strains of Cannabis in Nepal which are sold in the markets all over the world legally and how the legalization of Cannabis would bring remarkable upgrade to the country reeling under low economy and would be a great boost for the country to rise above its status of developing country. Apart from this, we have also proposed the steps that have to be taken at the government level for the stepwise legalization, substantial growth of the native strains and be a major leader in the world market by the export of Cannabis and its derived products.

  • Farmers’ perception of drought effects on cowpea and varietal preferences in Northern Ghana

    Farmer involvement in the development of cowpea varieties for cultivation is an integral component for crop improvement in Northern Ghana where the bulk of cowpea is produced. The objective of this study was to assess farmers’ perception about the effect of drought on cowpea production, identify production constraints and determine farmer preferred traits using Participatory Rural Appraisal. Five cowpea producing districts were selected across the three Northern regions. Fifty cowpea producers, consumers and traders were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance statistical procedure was used to identify and rank farmers’s constraints and preferences, and to measure the degree of agreement among the respondents. Ninety three percent of the farmers reported that, the number of hot days has increased over the past ten years. Farmers across all the three regions linked the effect of drought to the stages of cowpea growth with podding stage seen as the worst affected. About 70% of the farmers preferred varieties with large grain size, smooth or rough textured seeds with white coats. About 84 % of farmers preferred varieties that were early and drought tolerant.

  • Africanized honeybee and its contribution to soybean yield in Brazil

    Cultivated areas of soybean in Brazil have been increasing with each harvest and the seed market is moving in the same direction, launching new varieties every year. To increase not only planted area but also productivity, it is necessary to use technologies and use integration systems. In this study, the effect of pollination by honeybees on two soybean varieties in two consecutive years was evaluated. Three treatments were established: cages with Apis mellifera honeybees, cages without bees and free areas for insect visitation. The results showed an increase 6.45% of soybean yield in areas with free access to insect visitation. While in the cages with the introduction of Africanized honeybee colonies the increase was 13.64%. These results indicate that even in the most recent cultivars, cross pollination can show productivity gains even in an autogamous species.

  • Effect of Feeding Traditional Summer and Winter Rations on Minerals Contents in Milk of Cows and Buffaloes

    Twenty lactating Friesian cows and 20 lactating buffaloes with an average live body weight of 500 kg at 2-5 lactation seasonsafter the peak of lactation (60 days from parturition). Animals were fed summer rationconsisted of 40% concentrate feed mixture (CFM) + 40% corn silage (CS) + 20% rice straw (RS) (10 cows and 10 buffaloes) and winter ration consisted of 40% CFM + 40% fresh berseem (FB) + 20% RS (on DM basis) (10 cows and 10 buffaloes).Milk samples were taken from each cow and buffalo three times biweekly and prepared for minerals determination. The contents of Ca, K, Zn, Mn and Fe were higher in fresh berseem, while the contents of P, Mg, Na and Cu were higher in concentrate feed mixture, however, the lower contents of all minerals were detected in corn silage and rice straw. The contents and intake of all minerals were higher in winter ration containing fresh berseem than summer ration containing corn silage. The excretion of all minerals in feces and urine as well as absorption and retention increased significantly (P

  • EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGE OF DUAL PURPOSE SORGHUM ON SILAGE QUALITY

    Improved Dual Purpose Sorghum (IDPS) (Sorghum bicolor -Var Ikinyaruka) was harvested at six physiological growth stages and ensiled to evaluate the effect of growth stage on silage quality. The 6 treatments based on physiological growth stage of the sorghum were: bloom stage (PS1), soft dough stage (PS2), hard dough stage (PS3), physiological maturity stage (stalks with grains), (PS4), physiological maturity stage (stalks without grains) (PS5), and 1 month post grain harvest (PS6). The material was ensiled for 30 days in mini-silos made from 1000g plastic bags. The parameters monitored were silage Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Neutral Detergent fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), In-vitro Dry Matter Digestibility (IVDMD), pH and ammonia–N. The highest silage DM (30.60) was achieved at PS4 compared with 22.00, 26.00, 29.60, 29.50 and 27.10 for PS1, PS2, PS3, PS5 and PS6, respectively. The CP content decreased with maturity from 7.72 at PS1 to 7.01, 7.00, 7.00, 6.71 to 6.68 at PS2, PS3, PS4, PS5 and PS6 respectively. NDF and ADF at PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4, PS5 and PS6 were 56.50, 62.80, 65.97, 66.24, 67.27, 70.76 and 29.46, 36.49, 41.82, 41.95, 42.76 and 46.37 respectively. ADL was 3.54, 5.50, 7.35, 7.47, 7.52, and 8.50 for PS1, PS2, PS3, PS4, PS5 and PS6 respectively. Highest silage IVDMD of 56.06 was at PS1 secernated with 53.70, 52.47, 52.32, 52.21 and 42.52 achieved at PS2, PS3, PS4, PS5 and PS6 respectively. Silage from hard dough stage (PS3) yielded silage with highest nutritive value.

  • Out-break, Distribution and Management of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith in Africa: The Status and Prospects

    A review was made to highlight various research works done so far regarding to the introduction, distribution and managements of fall army worm in Africa. It has been reported that the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is an economically important pest native to tropical and subtropical America has recently invaded Africa there by causing substantial damage to maize and other crops. Accordingly, signals increased negative impacts on agricultural production and food security on the continent. Reports also suggested that this pest has already moved to at least 30 African countries. It was first detected in Central and Western Africa in early 2016 (Sao Tome and Principe, Nigeria, Benin and Togo) and from there proceeded further. Currently, in Africa the pest is causing huge damage to maize crop and has been estimated to 25-67% for maize in many countries. African continent provides favorable climatic conditions for a constant reproduction of the pest, which is expected to result in severe damage to high priority crops. Various control methods, including cultural, chemical and mechanical have been adopted and practiced by farmers in many African countries. Large-scale eradication efforts are neither appropriate nor feasible. Thus, in near future gathering and analyzing experiences and best practices from other countries where the pest is native will help to design and test a sustainable fall armyworm management program for smallholders in Africa. Furthermore, in order to reduce negative impacts associated with inappropriate usage of insecticide, emphasize should be given to develop or adopt the management practices which is environmentally safe.

  • Statistical Analysis Of Impact Of Climate Change On Crop Potentials Productivity On A Regional Scale In Nigeria

    Yield improvement is the main aim of all agricultural activities. Therefore, it is important to have an idea about the yield that can be produced from a piece of land before investing in it. This work is aimed at analysing the impact of climate change on crop yield potential and predicting the crop yield potential in six geo political zones in Nigeria using global solar radiation as the only limiting factors of production. Climatic data were obtained from Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Oshodi, Nigeria. Results of impact of climate change on the photosynthetic, light-temperature, and climatic potential productivities of maize and their gap differences are presented using a crop growth dynamics statistical method. The results showed that photosynthetic potential productivity decreased from north to south, with the largest values in two maize-growing zones due to higher average growing season radiation and a longer maize growing season. The light-temperature potential productivity of maize was higher than photosynthetic potential productivity, which varied from 3223.99 to 4425.79 kg ha−1, with a mean of 3821.402 kg ha−1 and climatic potential productivity varied from 11279.92 to 29263.75 kg ha−1, with a similar distribution pattern to light-temperature potential productivity with a mean of 23817.32 kg ha−1. The gap between light temperature and climatic potential productivity varied from 6884.07 to 33506.92 kg ha −1, with the high value areas centered in Southern Nigeria.

  • Change and Instability in Area and Production of Rice in Bangladesh

    Rice is considered as one of the monumental sources of human energy in Bangladesh. It can be stated that a vital element by which agronomic sector has been earned most of the quantity of profits for national development in this country is rice. This study covers the data of rice including the time from1972 to 2016 has been collected from secondary sources of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Different statistical tools have been used to complete the analysis. The analysis exposes that the area, production and yield of rice have improved meaningfully. Despite the production has been increased, It is not enough to full fill the shortage of the country. Therefore, advance research in this sector should be conducted with the assistance of researchers, government and policy makers. By this way new ideas and findings could be generated in order to improve the growth of rice.

  • Media and its Role in Agricultural Technology Transfer: the case of Dendi and Ejere weredas, Oromia, Ethiopia

    Agricultural extension organizations are entrusted with this primary task for which they use a variety of extension teaching methods/media. Among the mass media means of communication, radio is found to be the most important means of communicating agricultural information to the rural farmers. The study was conducted in Ethiopia, Oromia region west shoa zone two weredas of Dendi and Ejere . All the farmers living in the rural union councils of the district were considered as research population of the study. Multistage random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The list regarding the rural union councils and villages of the district was obtained from office of the District Officer Agriculture (Ext.).From each of the two weredas, three peasant associations (PA) were selected randomly. From each of the selected villages, 30 farmers were selected at random. The sample comprised 180 respondents. Analysis was done by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), interpreted and discussed to draw conclusions. According to the result indicated, the mean value of age of farmers was 38 .Regarding family sizes; the average family size is 5. The average formal education level is grade 5. Majority of them (93.9%) have radio and they follow agricultural programs in Amharic language. Moreover, there are farmers following agricultural information in Radio of Oromifa language (96.7%). There was a great variation of followers in Fana broadcasting corporation (FBC) of Amharic and Oromifa 74 .4 and 95.6 percent respectively. The future intention for getting Agricultural information indicates improving mean value in each case as compared to the present use of electronic media. Concerning the preference for obtaining Agricultural information in future, Mobil was at the top (score=274) with mean value 3.86 indicating medium level of preference. Radio (223) acquired the 2nd position with mean value 3.54 showing preference levels between…

  • The Impact of Elevated CO2 and High Temperature on the Nutritional Quality of Fruits- A Short Review

    Fruits are essential components of modern diet. Fruit nutrients provide important benefits to human in various ways for better health. Phytochemicals in fruit vary in quality and quantity depending mainly on fruit species and cultivar. Additionally, these phytonutrients can also be affected by different environmental factors including atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature. The current changes and the continuous anticipated increase in the CO2 concentrations and temperature in the atmosphere has become a major challenge in crop production. The literature is rich with investigations of individual and combination effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on growth, development and yield of plants, including fruits. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the impacts of elevated CO2 and high temperature individually and interactively on nutritional quality of fruits. According to the reviewed literature, both elevated CO2 and temperature significantly influenced fruit nutrient content and availability. Elevated CO2 is expected to affect positively the fruits nutrient content, while mixed responses found for high temperature. Interaction effects of these factors are the most important since they are predicted to increase concomitantly. With available literature, the combination impact of these factors on fruit nutrients was discussed under three different hypotheses in this review. (1) high temperature may offset the positive effects of elevated CO2, (2) elevated CO2 would compensate for the negative effects of high temperature and (3) interactively, both elevated CO2 and temperature may increase or decrease the phytonutrients in fruits.