American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Gender Differentials in Climate Change Adaptive Capabilities Among Small- scale Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria

    Gender differentials in climate change adaptive capabilities among small- scale farmers in Abia State was assessed using a sample size of 70 male and 70 female respondents generated via a multi- stage method. Data collected from the respondents through the use of questionnaire and interview schedule were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Z – Test analysis. Results showed 46 years and 44 years as the mean ages of male and female respondents respectively. About 29 %, 43 % and 21 % of the male respondents and 50 %, 36 % and 11 % of the female respondents were into farming, trading and other professions respectively. About 86 % of the male respondents and 69 % of the female respondents were literates and had mean monthly income of ₦32,871.143 and ₦28,642. 854. Result equally, shows a mean farm size of 1.7 and 1.3 hectares for the male and female respondents with mean years of farming experience of 11 years and 12 years respectively. About 57 %, 14, 12 and 7 % of male respondents acquired their farm lands through inheritance, lease, communal ownership, and outright purchase respectively as against 7 %, 57 %, 7 % and 29 % for the female respondents. About 90 % of the male respondents had between once every 2 years and once every 6 months of extension contacts as against 82 % of the female respondents. Also 86 % of the male respondents belonged to social associations as against 93 % of the female respondents. Result further shows that a high proportion (X ≥ 50 %) of male and female respondents have high level of awareness on adaptive measures but negative (X< 2.5) and low practice (X< 2.5) level of adaptive measures on climate change. The study equally shows that there is a remarkable difference between...

  • Assessment of socio-economic factors affecting the utilization of manual screw press for gari production in Kwara state, Nigeria

    This study investigated socio-economic determinants of utilization of manual screw press for cassava mash dehydration for gari production in four local government areas across the ADP zones in Kwara state, Nigeria. Using random sampling technique and a semi-structured questionnaire as research instrument, data for the study were collected from a sample of three hundred and eighty four (384) gari processors who use the screw press in the state. Multiple regression analysis show that a correlation (R=0.678) exist between utilization of the screw press and the independent variables which include age, household size, level of education, years of processing experience, extension visits, and income from gari processing. R2 value of 0.460 indicates that about 46% of the variation in utilization was explained by socio-economic variables included in the regression model. Three variables significantly influenced the decision of the respondents to utilize the manual screw press: age, level of experience, and income; the most important predicator being income with a Beta value of 0.699. Conclusively, it was recommended among others that research, extension, and policy makers consider the significant determinants identified in the study seriously if increased utilization is to be achieved by gari processors and others similar to them in the study area and the region.

  • Comparative Effect of Sesasons, Organomineral Fertilizer Ratios and Profitability of Cucumber Production (Cucumis Sativus L.) in Southwest Nigeria

    Ensuring an adequate good nutritional supply has been a major concern of mankind over the millennia, and even in today’s modern world of great scientific and technological achievements. Fruits and vegetables are of great nutritional value and they are sources of vitamins and minerals, thus, essential components of human diet. Premise to the above challenge there is the need to evaluate the economics production of cucumber under different agronomic management in order to encourage local production among small holder farmers. Experiment to document the productivity of cucumber was in early and late cropping seasons of 2016 at Teaching and Research Farm of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experimental design was a split-plot laid out in a Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The main plot include; four vine trailing methods (Staked, Trellised, Mulch and control) while sub-plots were six levels of organomineral fertilizers fortified in ratios (1:3, 1:1, 3:1 of organic with inorganic fertilizer;, 100% NPKha-1, 100% Organic Nha-1 and 0% Nha-1 as a control). The fertilizers were aimed to give 100% kg Nha-1. Data were collected on fruit yield per plot and yield was converted to hectare. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using (SAS, 2003). Means of significant treatments were separated using the Duncan`s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Also, gross margin analysis was carried out to know the profitability of the production seasons of cucumber. The data obtained from the experiments show that type of vine management and fertilizers significantly affected the yield of cucumber. Among the vine trailing methods investigated mulched method significantly enhanced the yield and subsequently produced the higher number of fruits and resulted in higher fruit yield per hectare. Ratio 1:1 combination of inorganic and organic fertilizers resulted in the highest number of cucumber fruits and…

  • Comparative evaluation of different sources of animal protein in broiler bird diets

    The effect of different animal protein sources in broiler production was investigated. 300 seven-day old broilers of equal average initial weight were randomly allotted into five treatment groups with 3 replications of 20 birds each and at the end of 28 days, birds were weighed again and re-randomized to the five treatment groups with 3 replicates of 16 birds each. The diets consisted of four animal proteins. Treatment 1(Control) had 4% fish meal, while diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had 1% of each of the animal protein source, 4% crayfish waste meal, 4% blood meal and 4% meat meal respectively. The study was conducted for 56 days of 28days starter phase and 28days finisher phase. The results showed blood meal to have the highest (P0.05) depression. The least cost per kg feed and least cost per kg weight gain (N) were observed with birds on crayfish diets. There was better (P

  • Biologic and Economic Effects of Replacing Maize with Maize sievate/Palm oil in Broiler bird diets

    A study aimed at replacing whole maize with maize sievate/palm oil in broiler diets was carried out to evaluate their economic and biological growth performance. Maize Sievate: Palm Oil mixture (40:1) was used to replace whole maize both in the starter and finisher diets at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% whole maize replacement levels. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments; three replicates each comprising of 20 day – old broiler birds at the starter phase. These birds were re-randomized at the finisher phase, with each treatment having 54 birds (18 birds/replicate). The starter and finisher phases lasted 28 days each. The average daily feed intake in both phases were not significantly (P

  • Effect of Configurations on the Coefficient of Uniformity and Water Distribution Using Single-Nozzle Plastic Sprinkler Heads

    This study was conducted during February and March 2014 in the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum at Shambat (longitude 32o32’E, latitude 15o40’N and altitude 380 m amsl), on a total area of 40 m x30 m .The objective of the study was to determine the effect of layout configuration under different operating pressures (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 bar) on the coefficient of uniformity (CU %) and distribution uniformity (DU %). The tested configurations were the square, rectangular and triangular sprinkler patterns by using single- nozzle plastic sprinkler heads (LEGO).For each configuration, a solid-set sprinkler system was designed and installed .Catch cans were placed at centre of grids of 4×4 m. The completely randomized design was used, and treatments were replicated three times. For each treatment the system was run for one hour. The data was analyzed, using Minitab Software Version 16. The triangular configuration recorded the highest uniformity coefficient and uniformity of distribution under 2 bars operating pressure. The mean CU% of value (87%) and DU% of value (80%) at (P≥ 0.05) gave the following descending order: triangular > square > rectangular configuration. All values obtained were within the acceptable range of standards set by Keller and Bliesner 1990. The appropriate operating pressure and sprinkler configuration should be considered when designing and installing a solid-set sprinkler system.

  • Additional Nitrogen Fertilization on Soybean via Soil and Leaf at the Reproductive Stage

    The ability of organic nitrogen fixation (BNF) to supply all the nutrient N in soybeans, considering high productivity, is questioned about the possible need to complement of this nutrient to the culture through other means of supplemental conventional fertilization. In this work the aim was to check the response of soybeans inoculated with bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, conditioned to supplementary nitrogen fertilization in the reproductive phase, in soil and in leaf. The treatments were the witness (without application of N), 30 and 60 kg of N ha-1, via soil and 2% solution of N, R1 and R 5.3 phases, in a randomized block design with 4 replications, using the soybean cv. Desafio, with the seeds inoculated with bacteria of the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii (strains Semia 587 and Semia 5019). The late application of N into R1 and R 5.3 provided increase in grain productivity of 478.6 kg ha-1 and 472.8 kg ha-1, respectively. The application, via soil, N in R1 features better harvest index, when compared to R 5.3. The late application of 2% solution of N, via foliar, provided no increase in productivity of soybean culture.

  • Cannabis in Nepal and scopes of its re-legalization

    The inception of legalization of Cannabis in America has paved way for the extensive research on this medicinal and religious plant all over the world. Despite the long relationship of Nepalese community with Cannabis since time immemorial, where it used to be used for both medical as well as recreational purposes, its illegalization during 1970s led to significant drop in one of the major source of income for numerous household and their families thereby impacting GDP of the country. Due to the geographical diversity of Nepal with most parts covered by hills and mountains along with the fertile land of plain region, the country has been a home to many landraces of Cannabis and we believe that it has the potential to be one of the major hub of harvest of Cannabis and Cannabis derived pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we have focused on the native strains of Cannabis in Nepal which are sold in the markets all over the world legally and how the legalization of Cannabis would bring remarkable upgrade to the country reeling under low economy and would be a great boost for the country to rise above its status of developing country. Apart from this, we have also proposed the steps that have to be taken at the government level for the stepwise legalization, substantial growth of the native strains and be a major leader in the world market by the export of Cannabis and its derived products.

  • Farmers’ perception of drought effects on cowpea and varietal preferences in Northern Ghana

    Farmer involvement in the development of cowpea varieties for cultivation is an integral component for crop improvement in Northern Ghana where the bulk of cowpea is produced. The objective of this study was to assess farmers’ perception about the effect of drought on cowpea production, identify production constraints and determine farmer preferred traits using Participatory Rural Appraisal. Five cowpea producing districts were selected across the three Northern regions. Fifty cowpea producers, consumers and traders were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance statistical procedure was used to identify and rank farmers’s constraints and preferences, and to measure the degree of agreement among the respondents. Ninety three percent of the farmers reported that, the number of hot days has increased over the past ten years. Farmers across all the three regions linked the effect of drought to the stages of cowpea growth with podding stage seen as the worst affected. About 70% of the farmers preferred varieties with large grain size, smooth or rough textured seeds with white coats. About 84 % of farmers preferred varieties that were early and drought tolerant.

  • Africanized honeybee and its contribution to soybean yield in Brazil

    Cultivated areas of soybean in Brazil have been increasing with each harvest and the seed market is moving in the same direction, launching new varieties every year. To increase not only planted area but also productivity, it is necessary to use technologies and use integration systems. In this study, the effect of pollination by honeybees on two soybean varieties in two consecutive years was evaluated. Three treatments were established: cages with Apis mellifera honeybees, cages without bees and free areas for insect visitation. The results showed an increase 6.45% of soybean yield in areas with free access to insect visitation. While in the cages with the introduction of Africanized honeybee colonies the increase was 13.64%. These results indicate that even in the most recent cultivars, cross pollination can show productivity gains even in an autogamous species.