American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Development of Light Sensors to Measure Defoliation

    Sensors have become valuable tools in agriculture when decisions regarding inputs require precision and speed. For example, factors in estimating defoliation in row crops, such as intensive labor and, in particular, subjectivity, are greatly reduced with the use of sensors that can remove these limitations and biases. Estimates of defoliation are almost always overestimated due to human error and biased, unconscious efforts to locate injury. To address these issues, the accuracy and preciseness of a light-based sensor to detect defoliation was tested by measuring simulated levels of defoliation (0-100%) on paper “leaves” at seven light intensities. Results indicated that higher lux values were detected through thinner paper (filter paper) than through thicker paper (cardstock), demonstrating that leaf thickness could potentially affect accuracy of the light-sensor system. Despite some light penetrating the thinner paper with simulated defoliation levels, the two light sensors tested yielded accurate and precise predictions of defoliation (R2 > 0.95). This light-sensor approach could potentially be used in the field to report real-time measurements of defoliation in row crops, such as soybeans, or in other plant-based systems where losses of leaf area require monitoring in order to prevent economic injury.

  • The growth and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fed Parkia biglobosa meal based diet

    The study investigated the growth and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings fed five iso-nitrogenus diets, containing fermented locust bean meal, at varying inclusion level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) as replacement for fishmeal. Eight weeks feeding trial was conducted using Clarias gariepinus fingerlings which were randomly distributed into 12 bowls at a stocking rate of 20 fish per bowl, in replicates per treatment. The experimental design was completely randomized. The fish were fed at 5% body weight, twice daily. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets containing fermented locust beans meal at varying replacement level for fish meal designated as diet A0, B10, C20, D30, E40 and F50 were formulated and fed to the fish. All the experimental fish fed the various treatments showed increase in weight, carcass crude protein and lipid content, compared to the initial value indicating positive contribution of the various diets to growth of the fish. The results obtained indicated there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean weight gain, percentage weight gain. Specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio among the fish fed the various diets. The highest weight gain was recorded in the fish fed the control diet (2.47g) while the least was recorded for the fish fed the B20 diet (2.18g). This study revealed that locust bean seed if processed, as in fermentation, could replace fishmeal up to 50% level in the diet of C. fish. This level of inclusion would be a significant replacement for the expensive fishmeal in feed manufacturing.


    Fruits and vegetables are considered to be the protective food because these help us to develop a defence mechanism in our body. Mango (Mangifera indica), which is the king of fruits for over 4000 years, is also our national fruit. There are more than thousand mango varieties in India. At present, India is one of the largest producers of mango, however, only about 30 varieties are grown on commercial scale in different states. Important mango varieties are cultivated in different states of India in which Tamilnadu cultivates the varieties like Banganpalli, Bangalora, Neelum, Rumani, and Mulgoa. More than 50 per cent of world mango production is contributed by India, but unfortunately mango productivity in the country is declining over the years. The productivity of Mango in Tamilnadu State was found to be low when compared to the National Average Productivity. The reason for this may the farmers are facing problems in processing and getting market information. The extension service providers also lack information on changing market needs and are not able to advise the producers appropriately. Hence this study is important and the results obtained will be utilized by the policy makers and the planners in horticulture and agriculture for further development of these sectors. An Economic Analysis Production Function of Mango Cultivation in Theni district.

  • Effects of different fertilizers on growth, yield and root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp in Okra Abelmoschus esculentus under field condition in Summer Season in Chitwan, Nepal

    An experiment was carried out at Agriculture and Forestry University, horticulture farm to determine the effects of different fertilizers on root knot nematode and yield on Okra (var. Arka Anamika) at summer season in inner terai region of Chitwan, Nepal. The treatment was carried out in the completely randomized block design (RCBD) with 7 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatment included: goat manure, sesame seed cake, mustard seed cake, poultry manure, furacron, vermicompost plus untreated control including only chemical fertilizer (NPK). All treatments were added to provide the sufficient amount of Nitrogen required for the crop as recommended by Nepal Agriculture Research Council. Remaining amount of required Phosphorous and potassium was supplied by adding Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of potash respectively. The germination percentage was found significantly superior in Furacron (93.33%) and followed by goat manure (92.67%), vermicompost (86.67%), sesame (til) seed cake (82.67%), mustard oilcake (81.67%), control i.e. NPK (76.67%) and poultry manure (61%). Similarly, In terms of number of galls , furacron (3.43) was found the most effective followed by goat manure (5.60), Poultry Manure (6.63), Mustard Seed Cake (8.47), Sesame cake (9.07), vermicompost (16.60) and control (21.96). In terms of yield, poultry manure (20mt/ha) was found superior followed by vermicompost (17.38mt/ha), goat manure (16.72 mt/ha), sesame (til) seed cake (16.62mt/ha), furacron (14.61 mt/ha), mustard oilcake (12.97 mt/ha) and control (10.51mt/ha). The highest net profit was found in case of Poultry manure while the lowest incremental cost benefit ratio was obtained in Furacron and followed by Goat Manure, Poultry manure, Vermicompost, Sesame (til) seed cake and Mustard seed cake. The highest yield (20t/ha) and nematode control was obtained in Poultry manure which is at par with Furacron treatment. This experiments suggests the use of Furacron or poultry manure will provide more economic return and also decreases the…


    Triticum aestivum L. (Bread Wheat) is a graminoid species of plant in the family true grasses, with a self-supporting growth habit. It is second staple food for the people living in Nepal. Total 45 weed species were collected from wheat field belonging to 19 families and 39 genera. Triticum aestivum L. is greatly affected by different weeds. Most of the weeds can be used as fodder.

  • Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment through Coping Strategies Index in Tillaberi region in Niger

    Climate change vulnerability of four villages in the Tillaberi Region of Niger was analyzed through a coping strategy index (CSI) determination. It concerned the villages of Dioga and Magou, in the commune of Torodi and those of Zori Bangou and Tokobinkani Zarma in that of Hamdallaye. Two types of indices were measured, one in relation to food security, and the other with assets and livelihoods. They reflected different values between the villages of the two municipalities and the two municipalities from 2015 to 2106. The value of the CSI in relation to the food security of the two municipalities in 2016, represents half of the score 2015, reflecting a decline in food vulnerability for this period. The CSI for assets and livelihoods for 2016 is 6.93, higher than 2015 one (6.32), indicating a greater diversification of livelihoods. In addition, the coping strategy index for the food aspects is higher in the villages of Hamdallaye with 55.5 and 41.9 respectively in 2015 and 2016, than in those of Torodi respectively 46.91 and 22.6, for 2015 and 2016, reflecting a higher vulnerability in Hamdallaye. For the CSI in relation to the assets and livelihoods, there is no significant difference between the two villages of Torodi and one of the two villages of Hamdallaye (Zori Bangou). Torodi, located further South with higher rainfall and greater livelihood diversification, has lower vulnerability criteria in relation to the food aspects than Hamdallaye in the north. Thus, there is an increase in vulnerability from south to north inversely proportional to the increasing rainfall gradient.

  • Evaluation of the quality of beeswax from different sources and rendering methods

    Most of the wax produced now-a-days are used in the manufacture of cosmetics, such as hand and face creams, lipsticks and depilatory wax and many uses. To become competent both in local and export markets the quality of the beeswax has to be maintained. However pre- and post-harvest handling and processing of crude beeswax may affect its quality and quantity. Hence, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of beeswax obtained from different sources and compares the effectiveness of different beeswax extraction methods for rendering pure and quality beeswax. Three bees wax sources (comb, sefef and crude honey) and three extraction methods (manual, submerged and solar) were arranged in complete factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Ten kg each of comb, sefef and crude honey were used for extraction and the average amount of pure beeswax obtained was compared. The analysis of variance indicated that there were significant difference among beeswax sources, extraction methods and interaction between beeswax sources and extraction methods on the yield of beeswax and slum gum ((P

  • Profitability of Vegetable Cultivation by the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Farmers

    The major objectives of this study were to describe the selected characteristics of the farmers cultivate vegetable with IPM farmers; to determine the level of profitability of vegetable cultivation with Integrated Pest Management (IPM) farmers and to identify the factor that significantly influences profitability of vegetable cultivation. The study was conducted with randomly selected 115 farmers in Tetuljhora union under savar upazila of Dhaka district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents during 25th August to 25th September, 2018. Profitability of vegetable cultivation by the IPM farmers was the dependent variable and it was measured based on benefit cost ratio. Eeleventh selected characteristics of the respondents considered as independent variables of the study. The interview survey revealed that majority (74.8 percent) of the respondents had medium level of profitability while 14.8 percent and 10.4 percent of them had high and low profitability respectively. Out of selected eleven characteristics, five namely number of vegetable grown, training in vegetable cultivation, organizational participation, annual family income and education had significant positive contribution to their profitability of vegetable cultivation by the IPM farmers. Therefore, to motivate the vegetable farmers for using IPM practices, the policy makers should consider the above mention significant factors

  • Yield Response of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Substrate Composed from Wheat Straw and Cotton Seed Waste

    Mushroom production has been gaining uppermost interests from scientific point of view due their nutritional values and medicinal importance’s. In this report, the effect of substrates’ composed from different mix ratio of wheat straws and cotton seed waste on growth, yield and yield related parameters of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) mushroom were presented. The experiment was lied out in different mix ratio of wheat straws and cotton seed waste for ten treatments with two replications in randomized complete design. The quantitative data including days taken for full colonization, days from colonization to primordial formation and days after primordial emergences to first harvest were recorded. The measurements of growth and yield parameters viz. cap-diameters, stipe length, number of fruits, aborts, bunches, biological efficiencies and total biomass were also recorded. The shortest days of primordial emergences 2.88days (T10) after mycelium fully colonize the substrates, days of first harvesting after primordial emergences 3days (T7), longest cap-diameters 11.35cm (T3), stipe length 4.39cm (T9), maximum number of bunches 5(T3,T5 and T8), maximum fresh weight 593.5g (T3) in 1st flush, were produced under different mix ratio of wheat straws supplemented with cotton seed wastes. Treatments T2 and T6 of wheat straw and cotton seed waste substrate where gave higher total biomass and biological efficacy 1382g and 183.65% respectively so that it could be recommended for pilot scale and large scale production of oyster mushroom.

  • Business Plan for the establishment of Animal Feed storage and retailer warehouse with future expansion to processing factory in Assosa Town Benishangul Gumuz Regional State Ethiopia

    Background: – The major constraint of animal productivity in Benishangul Gumuz Region State Ethiopia is absence of concentrate feed, breed and presence of epidemic diseases. Trypanosomiasis is the major epidemic disease affecting animals in the region as identified by different literatures. To solve this problem, veterinary clinics established by government almost in each kebeles of the woreda. There are two additional private veterinary clinics. To improve breed of animals cross breeds of Holstein Friesian is increased by artificial insemination service together with required extension service for small scale farmers. However, there was no animal feed distributor until this business organization is established in 2018 E.C by our organization Objective: – the major objective of this proposal is to get land for constriction of warehouse that enable to reduce cost of rent; store safely and to start mixing according to proportion. Opportunities: – There is no animal processing company in Assosa area. Owner has required qualification and experience. There are different enterprises and cooperative organizations engaged in livestock getting financial support from government and NGOs. The feed byproduct from oil and food factory can be used and there is plenty of ingredients like maize and oil seeds for future processing. Significance: -Precence animal feed distributor engages continues supply of concentrate feed that able to improve animal productivity and health so that improve economy of farmers, enterprises and region. In addition to this, farmers get knowledge and skill animal feed preparation. Source of feed: – the manager of this organization is signed as dealer of Alema Kaudjis Feed PLC located at Debrezeit and other feed processing plants in Addis Abeba. The future project expansion plan is to establish animal feed processing plant within this town Required capital:- totally 300,000Ethiopian birr)ETB) is needed for this were house construction and running business. 100,000 ETB…