American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF ANTHRACNOSE (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) ON SELECTED COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) GENOTYPES

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), is among the most important legume crop for protein source in peoples’ diet globally and including Kenya. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) is a common disease of legumes that causes yield loss of upto 90-100%. Potential production of common beans in Kenya is expected to be above 2000 kg ha-1 but due to challenges of pests and diseases among them anthracnose, it remains below potential yields. The aim of the recent study was to investigate selected common bean genotypes for anthracnose resistance in Kenya. The study was done in three varied agro-ecological zones; Busia, Bungoma and University of Eldoret. Fifteen genotypes were evaluated on field experiment to ascertain anthracnose incidence and severity. Four bean genotypes were used as experimental controls; two resistant and two susceptible controls. Data was collected on incidences and severity and subjected to Analysis of variance in SAS version 9.1. Mean values were separated using Tukeys’ Studentized Range Test. The results revealed tolerant and resistant genotypes with lower incidences and severity than those of resistant controls while susceptible genotypes recorded higher incidences and severity than those of the susceptible controls. Tolerant genotypes were; Ciankui, Tasha, and KK8 while the resistant genotypes were; Miezi mbili, KK15 and Chelalang. Site variation was significant at (P≤0.05) with Busia 82%, Bungoma 76% and University of 53%. KK15, Tasha and Chelalang were tolerant in all sites, and this could be attributed to their genetic resistance. The six genotypes identified to be potentially tolerant and resistant to anthracnose and high yielding could be further studied and used in breeding programs for development of resistant lines globally and in Kenya.

  • Occurrence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in Minimally-processed and Frozen Fruit Pulps

    Fruits and fruit pulps are widely consumed worldwide due to their nutrients, flavors and varieties. However, these products become contaminated with pathogens during harvest or production, which are risks to consumers. This study analyzed the microbiological quality of frozen fruit pulps and minimally processed fruits sold in supermarkets and the presence Salmonella sp. and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Almost all frozen fruit pulps samples were adequate to consume, only one samples of unpasteurized mango pulp was positive for E. coli carrier of est1b gene that codify thermostable toxin of Enterotoxigenic E. coli. Minimally processed fruits presented high yeast and mold counts in 36.25% (29/80) of the samples and 27.6% (22/80) had thermotolerant coliforms. In addition, one sample of grated coconut had E. coli and one sample of melon honeydew had Salmonella sp. E. coli O157:H7 was absent in all samples of minimally processed fruits. E. coli showed greater resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance was observed in 14.3% (2/14) of E. coli isolates. Only one strain of Salmonella sp. was resistant to antibiotic sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Therefore, the enforcement of pasteurization in the fruit pulp processing, as well hygienic-sanitary control in lead up of minimally-processed fruits and temperature control in storage are recommended to minimize the risk of foodborne disease.

  • Agricultural Land Use Pattern and Socioeconomic Study of Taluk Dharmadas Mouza

    The Taluk Dharmadas Mouza is situated at the sadar upozilla of the Rangpur city under 32 number ward. This study was conducted for acquiring knowledge and analyzing of land pattern on agricultural phenomenon as well as the socioeconomic condition. For this mechanism was the socioeconomic questionnaire method, fractional code method, GIS and RS techniques were also used. GIS and RS are used for mapping land pattern, land surface temperature calculation where a fractional code method was used for obtaining and analyzing specific Jurisdiction List (JL) Number and plot number based cultural and physical characteristics. Furthermore the questionnaire helped for studying the overall land use, environmental, socioeconomic and agricultural description. The study found that the study area contains 40 percent agricultural land where 91 percent soil is sandy, against it 30 percent of proper irrigation prevails and temperature pattern is suitable, but the flooding 28 percent and water logging 24 percent is the excessive for agricultural activities instead of this most profitable crop found in only paddy production of 36 percent. In addition, three or multiple crop cultivation gets 45.15 percent agricultural land which revels the increased amount of production. The individual unwillingness for cultivation is 88 percent by considering several aspects including economic condition which is a threat to food safety. In addition urbanization is rapidly forming, but settlement pattern is not developed as their socioeconomic condition where the old age pattern for male is excessive instead of youth female age group of 13 percent which provides the efficiency of the female is larger than male portion. Economic condition is in the lower middle and upper middle level as it is compared with per capita income so their product obtaining quality is poor for housing of 19 percent where cattle is increased by 53 percent. Land changing capacity includes agricultural…

  • Space breeding in modern agriculture

    Space breeding, also known as aviation breeding or space technology breeding, is a new type of breeding technology developed in recent decades, which combines space technology, modern agricultural technology and biotechnology. Compared with traditional breeding technology, it can greatly improve the quality of agricultural products in a short period of time, create many high-quality provenances, well solve the problem of food shortage, and bring endless benefits to the world. Therefore, space breeding technology will play an important role in the rapid development of modern agriculture. In this paper, the principles and characteristics of space breeding, development status and future prospects at home and abroad are introduced.

  • Combining Ability and Gene Action of Tomato Hybrids (Lucopersicum Esculantum L.) Genotypes in Azerbaijan

    This work identifies the combining ability of 10 tomato (Lucopersicon esculantum) parents and 45 F1 hybrids obtained from 10 × 10 half diallel. The work aims to identify the parents with the best general combining ability (gca) and crosses with high specific combining ability (sca) for yield, quality and nature of gene action involved. The study was conducted within 2014 and 2017 at Absheron condition in Azerbaijan using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The combined analysis of variance showed that variance for gca and sca was highly significant for all the traits studied. This indicates that both additive and non-additive gene actions were operating in the inheritance of these traits. Parental level of gca revealed that introduced genotype (Masalli variety-form) had highest (5843.87) effect followed by Belarusian variety ‘Qarant’ (1930.97) for fresh pod yield and other related traits. The highest sca for hybrids was exhibited by Masalli variety-form x Ilkin, ‘Leyla x Masalli variety-form, ‘Shahin’ x Volqoqrad and Zorka x Shakar for yield and quality traits. This indicates the existence of immense potential for population improvement and heterosis breeding for enhancing productivity and qualities. The ratios of gca mean square to sca mean square were higher than unity for traits, indicating that additive gene action plays a predominant role in the inheritance of most of the traits.

  • Effects of Compaction at Different Moisture Contents on Selected Soil Properties and Sugarcane Growth and Sugar Yield at Metahara Sugar Estate

    Although soil compaction has been reported as one of the most serious problems in mechanized sugar cane production, its impacts on soil physicochemical properties and plant growth and sugar yield have not been quantified in the Ethiopian Sugar Estates. A field experiment was conducted in 2016 at Metahara Sugar Estate with the objective of evaluating the effects of initial soil moisture content and number of tractor passes on compaction and resulting impact on selected soil physicochemical properties and sugarcane growth parameters and sugar yield. The field experiment consisted of factorial combinations of compacted soils at three different soil moisture levels (on 4th, 8th and 12th days after irrigation) and six tractor traffic passes (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 passes) which were replicated three times. The result of the study showed that the highest mean values of dry bulk density and penetration resistance were recorded in plots compacted by twenty to and fro passes of tractor. Both bulk density and penetration resistance showed non-linearly increasing pattern with increasing number of passes. The tallest (196 cm) and shortest (171 cm) cane at the age of 8 months were recorded, respectively, in plots with zero and 20 passes of tractor. Significantly higher values of sugar yield were recorded in plots with zero number of passes (control). Imposing of different number of passes on 4th and 8th days after irrigation gave significantly lower yield than the 12th day after irrigation. Bulk density of the studied farm fields recorded after compaction by 20 traffic passes on the 8th day after irrigation, which corresponded to a gravimetric moisture content of 29.30%, was in excess of the root restriction initiation level. These results imply that it is advisable to avoid field operations involving Magnum 315 tractor on light soils before the 8th day after irrigation…

  • Mineralization of phosphorous by phosphate solubilising bacteria isolated from a vertisol

    The current experiment unravels P solubilisation potential of soil under long term fertilizer application. Soil samples collected from a 20 years old long term experimental field. Treatments included fallow (no fertilizer, no crop), control (no fertilizer, with crop), 100% N, 100% NP, 100% NPK, and 100% NPK+FYM. P solubilisation potential of soils determined using Ca3(PO4)2 as inorganic insoluble P source. Abundance of total bacteria, phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) estimated along with the efficient PSB isolated to evaluate P solubilisation potential using Ca3(PO4)2, rock phosphate and sodium phytate as P sources. P solubilisation rate was highest in 100% NP and lowest in fallow. Abundance of total eubacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) was high in 100% NP and low in fallow. The 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates were homologues to Paraburkholderia sp. The efficient PSB isolate solubilised Ca3(PO4)2, rock phosphate as well as sodium phytate. Acid phosphatise activity was highest in Ca3(PO4)2 and lowest in sodium phytate. Study concludes that P solubilisation in vertisol under long term fertilizer application is regulated by nutrients, particularly P fractions and abundance of PSB. The PSB solubilise different P sources by reducing pH of medium as well as through acid phosphatase attributes.

  • The Role of Property Rights to Grazing Lands in Small-Scale Farmers Development in Taung, Maralleng in Mohale’s Hoek

    Property rights are social institutions that define and delimit the range of privileges granted to individuals of specific resources, such as land and water. They are the authority to determine different forms of control over resources thus determining the use, benefits and costs resulting from resource use. The paper has attempted to determine how the situation of property rights to grazing lands affects the grazing lands’ use and development of smallholders in the Taung Maralleng area. Data was collected from 43 households who were selected using random sampling. To capture data, a questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Institutional analysis and ANOVA were used for descriptive analysis to describe the property rights situation, security of property rights and the impact of property rights on the grazing lands’ use and management. The results show that some rights holders have secure rights to grazing land resources while other farmers have insecure rights to grazing land resources. The results from institutional analysis show that the situation of property rights negatively affects resource use and management in the Taung Maralleng area. There are various institutional factors that negatively affect development of smallholder farmers and grazing lands’ use and management in the Taung Maralleng area.


    The study was undertaken with the purpose of investigating institutional factors influencing participation in milk markets in Maseru urban. Out of 30 dairy farmers, 30 were selected using a survey method and data was collected using a structured questionnaires. The data generated was analysed using both descriptive statistics and logit model. Descriptive results show that dairy farmers use formal market channels more than informal market channels. Empirical results show that market information, membership in organization and collective action, government support and contractual agreements influence participation in formal markets while social capital, path dependency, delayed payments and distance to milk collection centres influence participation in the informal markets.

  • Modelling of unsteady spatially distributed drying parameters assessed non-destructively in a small industrial food dryer

    Modelling of unsteady moisture diffusion in relation of product temperature become complex due to complexity involve in solving complex numerical equations. In this study, a simplified methodology (determination of drying parameters: lag factor and drying constant) used to model change in food quality with its temperature in an industrial dryer using potato slices (6mm thick, 60°C). A shiftable real time data acquisition box was developed. Linear and exponential models were developed to estimate product quality as a function of dimensionless moisture ratio, linked with change in product temperature. The experimental and models predicted color kinetics using variable values of lag factor and drying constant revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.88-0.99, P ˂ 0.0001). The change in spatially distributed quality parameter with product weight loss was successfully assessed and modelled unsteadily, providing a better way to optimize the design process as a function of food physiognomies in an industrial dryer.