American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Integrated weed (Orobanche crenata) management on faba bean

    In Ethiopia pulse crops are widely grown and Faba bean (Vicia faba L., 2n=12) is an old world grain legume of the family Leguminasae. This crop is one of the major pulses grown in the highlands of Ethiopia ranging from 1800-3000 m.a.s.l receiving an annual rainfall of 700-1100 mm, and the country is now considered as one of the secondary centers of genetic diversity. In eastern Amhara region high lands, faba bean is cultivated widely and thought to be an area for the largest collection of faba bean landraces. The production of faba bean is declined from year to year due to various production constraints such as diseases, soil acidity and weeds, particularly root parasitic weeds Broomrape (Orobanche species). These parasitic weeds cause very high levels of crop damage in terms of both yield and quality. Yield losses due to Orobanche weed ranges from 5 to 100% depending on the level of infestation and environmental conditions. Orobanche species are root parasitic flowering plants lack of leaves and totally dependent on their hosts for their life cycle. The parasitic is on a wide range of food legumes such as faba bean, field pea, lentil, vetch, Solanaceae crops, oil crops and root crops. The severe invasion of legume crops, especially faba bean and field pea are by Orobanche crenata. The physical attachment and the damage of the weed are under ground. The weed disperses by wind, flood, birds, animals, crop seeds, humans and farm machinery. It is propagated by seeds which can remain dormant and survive and able to viable in the soil for more than 20 years. Due to the complete devastation of faba bean by Orobanche crenata, farmers forced to replace pulse crops by cereals and spice in south Wollo (Kutaber, Dessie zuria, Tenta and Mekidela woredas); therefore, farmers lost…

  • Organoleptic Properties And Proximate Composition Of Some Potato Genotypes

    The outstanding features of Orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP) are the nutritional and sensory versatility in terms of its micronutrient contents and wide range of colours, taste and mouth feel. This study was carried out to evaluate the organoleptic properties and proximate composition of some Orange-fleshed sweet potato genotypes viz: Umuspo1, Umuspo3 and Ex-Igbariam. Estimation of moisture, ash, crude fibre, fat, protein and energy value was conducted using standard AOAC procedures. Twenty-eight sensory assessors were used to evaluate some sensory (organoleptic) attributes such as colour, aroma, taste, mouth feel and general acceptability of chips and shake made from the OFSP genotypes. Proximate analysis result showed that moisture content varied from 68.137 – 61.235%, 4.23 – 5.54% for protein, 0.542 – 1.265% for fat, 1.22 -2.25% for crude fibre, and 1.189 – 1.677 % for ash. The energy value ranged from 392.906 %- Umuspo1 to 390.74%-Ex-Igbariam. % moisture content and dry matter differed significantly with varieties (P < 0.05). The highest values of vitamin C, B3 and B2 were 24.03 mg/g (Umuspo3), 0.324 mg/g (Umuspo3) and 0.028 mg/g (Ex-Igbariam), respectively. The experimental OFSP genotypes had higher value of calcium than the other mineral content. Chips and shake prepared from the experimental OFSP genotypes were generally accepted for consumption and could serve for use as chips and shake.

  • Behavior of improved varieties and creoles of rice at the Baixada Maranhense

    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the different varieties of creole and improved seeds of rice regarding the productive aspects and disease resistance in the experimental field of the Farm School of São Benedito and in area of farmer in Arari -MA. It was used improved seeds of rice (Primavera, Emeralds, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba), and creoles (Palha Murcha, Rice Vermelho and Come Cru), which constituted the treatments in a randomized block design with four replications, plots of 10 m2 useful area of 2.70 m2. In the aspect of grain yield, the creole varieties Palha Murcha and Rice Vermelho presented respectively mean grain yield (x= 1.472 kg ha-1; x=1.374 kg ha-1), within the average expected for Maranhão and equal to the variety improved Arariba, in the municipality of Arari. In São Bento, the varieties Palha Murcha, BR Irga 420, Arariba, Sertaneja, Esmeralda and Primavera produced above average (1.580 kg ha-1) for Maranhão. As for the resistance to diseases, all varieties were moderately resistant to diseases brown spot and Grains spots. The varieties Primavera, Esmeralda, Sertaneja, BR Irga 420, Serra Dourada, Arariba and Palha Murcha had a high susceptibility to leaf scald in São Bento. There was incidence of narrow spot at the improved varieties Arariba and Br Irga 420, with behavior moderately resistant, the other varieties were resistant to this disease in Arari. Therefore, the rescue of creole seeds is important and enables the development of agro agriculture.

  • Impacts of climate change on crop production and its adaptation

    Climate change, which is inevitable, has a large impact on economies and livelihoods of many people. Therefore, the need to mitigate its impacts is paramount. Consequently, this has motivated a substantial body of research on the matter. The central issues that have been addressed are the impacts of climate change as well as the adaptation strategies that can be employed. The aim of this paper is to review existing literature on the above issues with a focus on smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Adaptation strategies identified include; adjustment in land use, change in technology, farm diversification and risk management. Some environmental, economic and institutional factors are revealed to hinder farmers from adopting these strategies. The study recommends emphasizes on polices enhancing adaptation by smallholder farmers. Additionally, future studies on climate change should widen the range of variables used so as to capture the current global food prices and adaptation transition costs.

  • Pearl millet landraces: variability, yield components, grain and panicle quality

    The millet is one of the most important cereals for food and feed in the world. Through this study, the behavior of 15 autochthonous cultivars of pearl millet in presence of one Nigerian control was done in Mitidja’s conditions (sub-humid region in Algeria) to assess the variability using pheno-agro-morphological traits, grain and panicle quality. Analysis of variance showed the existence of a large variability between landraces, revealed by very highly significant differences among the following characters: plant height, panicle length, panicle thickness, 1000 grain weight and crude fiber content of panicles. Differences were significant for stem diameter and panicle weight and high significant for dry matter content of panicles. Principal component analysis showed that four components explained 81.03 % of variation. The greatest variability was explained by the following traits: panicle weight, panicle length, panicle thickness, 1000 grain weight and crude fiber content of panicles. Significant correlations existed between many traits studied which are promising for breeding works.

  • Influence of Poultry Feed Dynamism on Eggs Production

    This study was carried out to assess the influence of poultry feed dynamism on eggs production in Odogbolu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of interview guide. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select ninety respondents. The result revealed that 78.90% of the respondents were male, 91.10% of them were married with mean age of 37 years. The results also showed that 95.6% of the respondents did not have access to extension agents to obtain information. The finding also shows that all (100%) the respondents practiced feed dynamism because of poor feed scarcity. The result of the correlation revealed that poultry feeding practices had significant but inverse relationship on eggs production (r= -0.25 p

  • A Panacea For Food Security And Sustainable Rural Development

    Food security and sustainable rural development are indispensible ingredients in attaining the Millennium Development goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. The reduced time for food preparation and the increasing demand for processed food heighten the need for developing healthy, affordable food products, and appropriate processing systems to provide food to the rapidly growing population in developing countries. Mechanizing postharvest activities has not attracted much attention from international research organizations, while research on the improvement of agricultural production has received considerable attention and funding. However, there is an emerging consensus on the critical role that postharvest systems can play in meeting the overall goals of food security, poverty alleviation and sustainable agriculture particularly in developing countries. This study focuses on the trends in mechanizing various postharvest processing operations, and its impact in attaining food security and sustainable rural development. It also highlights the set-backs to mechanization of postharvest systems.

  • Traditional to Smart Irrigation Methods in India: Review

    Irrigation is the controlled application of water for agricultural purposes through manmade systems to supply water requirements that are not satisfied by the rainfall. Crop irrigation is vital throughout the world in order to provide the world’s ever-growing populations with enough food. Many different irrigation methods from traditional to smart ones are used over worldwide, including: surface, sub-surface, sprinkler, drip, and advanced or smart to satisfy the plants thrust. In this paper efforts have been made to present the basics of different irrigation systems adapted by the Indian farmers to grow their crops.

  • Factors Affecting Sustainability Of Melon (Egusi) Production

    Melon crop plays important roles in the farming system and in the nutritional diet and economic well-being of West African rural dwellers. However, there has been continuous decline in the melon yield in last two decades. Also, cultivation of melon is not without challenges like every other arable crop in southwest Nigeria. Hence, this paper focused on factors affecting melon (egusi) production in rural farming households of southwest, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 108 respondents from twenty villages in three LGAs of Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using interview guide and analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that 80.10% of melon farmers were males and 87.04% were married with a mean age of 41 years. Many (47.20%) of the melon farmers did not have formal education while 36.10% attended primary school. The mean year of farming experiences was 16 years. The farmers cultivated melon seeds obtained from their previous harvest (81.0%) and purchase seeds from the open markets (19.0%). Melon output declined from 376.53kg/ha in 2012 to 280.70kg/ha in 2014. Result of regression analysis showed that production input and socio-economic characteristics of the respondents (t = 0.19) have significant influence on melon output at p < 0.05. The study concludes that melon yield is declining in the study area. Hence, it is recommends that extension agents should teach the melon farmers improved farming practices that can enhance higher productivity and better yield for sustainable melon production to be achieved in the study area.