American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Use of Improved Technologies by Smallholder Paddy Farmers in Kilombero District, Tanzania

    The study on which the paper is based was carried out in Kilombero district, Morogoro Region. Specifically it aimed at; identifying smallholder paddy farmers use of improved technologies (i.e. improved seeds and fertilizers) in their production; determining socio-economic factors influencing their use or none-use of the above, and identifying inputs access challenges faced by the farmers. To address the above a cross–sectional research design was adopted whereby data were collected only once. Simple random sampling was used to obtain 120 respondents, 40 from each of the selected villages. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Collected primary data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), whereby descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were determined. In addition, a binary logistic regression model was used to determine association of some key socio-economic factors and farmers use of improved technologies. Generally, results from the logistic regression show that, availability of extension officers, involvement in other income generating activities, access to credit, household size, annual income, education level and farm size were significantly associated with the use of improved seeds and fertilizers. Results further show that, major technology use challenges faced by farmers were high inputs prices, poor availability of inputs, long distance to agro–input shops, lack of adequate input use knowledge and low quality inputs. Therefore, the paper recommends that, the Ministry of Agriculture, Local Government and other stakeholders work on ways to increase smallholder farmers’ access and use of improved technologies hence improvement of their paddy productivity.

  • Effect of temperature on bean seed germination: vigor and isozyme expression

    This research aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds and isozyme expression in seedlings of bean’s genotypes under influence of germination temperatures. Seeds of Carioca, BRS Expedito and IPR Tuiuiú genotypes were subjected to five germination temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C). Seeds were submitted to tests of germination, first count, germination speed index, cold test, isozyme expression and the total dry matter of seedlings. Germination was altered due to the different temperatures. As the temperature rose, seeds of IPR Tuiuiú and BRS Expedito had reduced germination. The increase on temperature significantly affected the germination speed index of the three genotypes, leading to a greater increase in the values of this attribute. Bands of esterase from the cold test showed less intensity compared to other tests. Due to the exposure to different temperatures, there are similarities between the number and intensity of bands on esterase, with lower enzyme expression at 30 and 35 °C, changes in the number and intensity of peroxidase expression at all temperatures, and practically none expression of the acid phosphatase enzyme in higher evaluated temperatures. Therefore, the seeds exhibit better performance when exposed to temperature of 30 °C compared to use of lower temperatures, while on temperatures above 30 °C isozymes expression is reduced for both genotypes.

  • Characterization of fire occurrences (2010-2014) in the southeast of Brazil

    The periodic occurrence of forest fire is common in some places of Brazil. Mostly in places, that has a specified dry station, these fires can damage the forestry ecosystems, and their occurrence may affect the wild life and bring economic losses, as well in CO2 global emission. The aim of this study was define the fire season occurrence in Viçosa – Minas Gerais state Brazil, using five years data of fire and rainfall collected by the Fire Fighters. The study was made through the data from the firefighters from UFV, this data was evaluate for a period between 2010 and 2014, collecting the days and months that occurred fire in Viçosa city and outskirts, also the average precipitation data for the period. The observations showed that to Viçosa city, the occurrence of fire is mostly common in the July to October months, and August is the most susceptible month.

  • Erwinia chrysanthemi, rhizospheric earthworms, sorghum, vermicompost

    Bioagents colonized vermicompost can be a crucial alternative natural biological control of stalk rot diseases of sorghum because of the hazardous effects of agrochemicals on non-targeted organisms and soil health. To study the interaction among bioagents colonized vermicompost with stalk rot disease of sorghum caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi, and earthworms of rhizospheric soil, pre-plant soil application of bioagents colonized vermicompost @ 2.5 kg/4 m2 and chemicals viz. Blitox-50, Bleaching powder, Streptocyclin and Tetracyclin @ 2.5% were done under field conditions. In analysis of earthworm’s population dynamics, maximum numbers of young earthworms per plant rhizosphere were observed with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by vermicompost alone and vermicompost colonized isolate Psf-24. However, minimum number of young earthworms per plant rhizosphere was obtained with Bleaching powder. Maximum seed germination was recorded with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Th-R, Th-14, and Psf-12. Maximum number of earthworm’s heap of cast per plant rhizosphere was obtained in plants treated with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Psf-19, Psf-12 and Psf-18. Significant increase in biomass yield of sorghum plants were observed among all the treatments. However, maximum biomass yield was observed with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Psf-24. Maximum reduction of disease severity was recorded with vermicompost colonized isolate Th-2 followed by Th-14, Th-R and Psf-3. Present investigation suggests the effect of bioagents colonized on the dramatic increase in earthworm’s population (young and adult), earthworm’s body length, sorghum plant biomass yield and reduction in stalk rot disease severity. Our experiments have shown that bioagents colonized vermicompost have considerable potential not only improving plant growth, suppression of stalk rot disease severity significantly but also increasing soil earthworms when used as pre-plant soil amendment.

  • Vulnerability of the fishery-based households to the impact of climate change

    This study examines the vulnerability of fishery-based households in Ethiopian rift valley lakes Chamo and Hawassa. The vulnerability assessment approach used vulnerability indicator method which is composed of both biophysical and socioeconomic indicators of fishery-based households. The indicators selected were classified into exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to give weight to the vulnerability indicators. The result shows that the fishery-based households around Lake Chamo are more vulnerable to climate change than in Lake Hawassa. The result of this study stresses the immediate need for appropriate adaptation and/or mitigation measures to help the livelihood of the fishermen in the study areas. The results of this study should be considered for future decision making when mitigation and adaptation mechanisms are selected.

  • Plant parasitic nematode associated with sweet potato in Nigeria

    Survey of plant parasitic nematodes were carried out in some sweet potato growing areas of Nigeria. The research was design to assess the plant parasitic nematode pests of sweet potato in sweet potato growing areas in Nigeria. Soil samples and sweet potato tubers were randomly sampled from selected farm sites in Oyo, Osun, Kaduna, Kwara, Kogi, Abia, Cross Rivers, Benue, Taraba and Plateau States of Nigeria. Plant parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil and sweet potato tubers following standard methods and identification key for agriculturally important plant-parasitic nematodes was used for the nematode identification. Nematodes were extracted and identified in the laboratory. The plant parasitic nematodes identified in the soil samples and sweet potato tuber were root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, lesion nematode Pratylenchus species, brown ring nematode Ditylenchus destructor and D. dipsaci, stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus spp. and dry rot nematode Scutellonema bradys. Plant parasitic nematodes infected sweet potato tubers have unappealing appearances, cracks, internal lesions and dry rot.

  • Analysis Of Breach Of Dormancy Of Jurema Preta And Mororó

    The seed dormancy limits seedling production and the potential for using them. This study aimed to determine the best method for breaking dormancy in seeds of Mimosa hostilis Benth. and Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong.) Steud. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Science, State University of Alagoas (UNEAL) Campus II, located in the municipality of Santana do Ipanema, Alagoas State, Brazil. Five treatments were studied (T): T1 – immersion in water at 100 ° C until cooling thereof; T2 – immersion in water at 50 ° C until cooling thereof; T3 – immersion in sulfuric acid for 5 minutes, followed by washing in water for 10 minutes; T4 – mechanical scarification by sandpaper for 2 minutes, and T5 – Witness. Where it came to evaluating the germination speed index (GSI) and germination percentage (G%). Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means compared by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The immersion in sulfuric acid was the best method to break seed dormancy of Mimosa Hostilis Benth., now for Bauhinia cheilantha bong. Steud in the chiseling was the best method for breaking dormancy.

  • Effect of wastewater irrigation of sweet sorghum on soil and plant

    The experiment was conducted at Isfahan East Waste Water Treatment in 2011 growing season by using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were managed for irrigation: municipal water, untreated waste water and treated waste water. Results showed irrigation with untreated and treated waste water had significantly higher biomass (86.00 t/ha) than municipal water (66.00 t/ha). Highest ethanol yield (6540 l/ha) was obtained for sweet sorghum irrigated with raw waste water. Both pH and P was accumulated in the soil irrigated with untreated and treated waste water. At the end of growing season the amount of Cd, Pb and Ni were accumulated in these soils. The amount of measured heavy metals in sweet sorghum grain, leaf and stem were significantly higher in untreated waste water than both municipal water and treated waste water. Number of coliform in untreated waste water was significantly higher than treated and municipal water. The number of coliform in grain, leaf and stalk for surface non- sterilized was higher than surface sterilized but it was less than 100 MPN 100 ml-1. Based on the results, in order to produce bioethanol without accumulation of heavy metals in the soil, it is suggested to plant sweet sorghum and irrigated with treated waste water.

  • Bio-stimulant of seaweed source as an organic alimentative to Bellary onion

    The influence of bio-stimulant Aquasap powder derived from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii was applied at 0.2% through foliar application on bellary onion at the establishment, vegetative, bulb formation and bulb development stage. Bulb yield and quality parameters such as total soluble solid, moisture content, ash content, organic content, pyruvic acid content, physiological loss and rotting percentage were studied. The crop yield in terms of bulb in treated plant was 31.65% over control with no statistical significant in the content of pyruvic between treated and control plants.

  • Effect of storage condition on seed quality and health in jute O-9897

    The experiments were conducted in the laboratory of Plant Pathology Department, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The experiments were conducted during the period 15 January 2010 to 5 March 2012. Nine different types of containers viz. tin pot, plastic pot, poly bag, gunny bag, gunny bag lined with polythene, earthen pot, cloth bag, brown paper and IRRI poly bag, two level of moisture contents viz. farmers’ condition (13%) and recommended moisture condition (9.5%) by Bangladesh Gazette (2010) and seed treatment with Provax-200 and control (untreated) were used for the present study. Seeds were stored for 12 months and examined after 4. 8 and 12 months of storage. Among the nine containers, tin pot was found better in respect of moisture content, germination, mean germination time, vigour index and 1000- seed weight. Health condition of seeds was also superior compared to other containers. The poorest performance was observed in earthen pot regarding moisture content, germination, mean germination time, vigour index, 1000- seed weight and seed borne infection. The findings of the present study also reveal that recommended moisture content was better than farmers’ condition. Provax-200 treated seed also resulted better performance than non treated seed. So, Quality of jute seeds can be maintained by storage in tin pot with provax-200 treated and recommendation moisture content (9.5%).