American Journal of Agricultural Research

  • Crop Productivity of Wheat under Different Tillage Systems in Semi-Arid Conditions of Sudan

    This study was conducted at Tamboul Testing and Training Centre, Sudan located at 150km south east of Khartoum during two different seasons (1995 -1996) to investigate the response of wheat productivity to different tillage systems on a heavy clay soil in an area of 2.4ha. The treatments were deferent tillage systems (Zero tillage, ridging, shallow harrowing, heavy harrowing, disc ploughing, disc ploughing+harrowing, split ridging and ridging thrice). These treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. A computer program (SAS statistical package) was used to analyze the data while the variations among the means were checked by the least significant difference (LSD).The parameters tested were soil physical properties, crop water requirements (mm/day), plant height (cm), No. of tillering and crop productivity (kg/ha). The results indicated that, tillage systems significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected clearly soil physical properties. Disc ploughing+harrowing decreased the bulk density (1.3g/cm3) as compared to zero tillage system (1.5g/cm3). Plant height, tillering and yield significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected by the different tillage systems. Disc ploughing+harrowing gave the highest mean values of plant height (65.83cm), tillering (246) and crop productivity (1305kg/ha) as compared to zero tillage which ranked the least (43.26cm, 202 and 806.8kg/ha, respectively). It is concluded that for increasing the productivity of wheat crop, Disc ploughing+harrowing should be followed and adopted as one of the most important technical packages.

  • Demographic Profiling of Dogs and Dog Ownership in Nsukka Metropolis of Enugu State, Nigeria: a Case study using the Free Anti-Rabies Vaccination Campaign conducted at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka: January-April, 2015

    This Dog ownership in Nigeria, patterns a combination of supervised and stray dogs. The latter constituting Public health challenges. This study relates ecology; dynamics of dog breeds, ownership, management; adherence/non-adherence to extant laws on dog ownership with Rabies endemicity in Nsukka. It proffers recommendations for sustainable Rabies control & vaccination campaign Key Message Nsukka is endemic for Rabies. Statutory control and prevention strategies do not suffice. Understanding the human-dog-interactions as core risk factors for endemicity of Rabies and breaking this link can lead to a Rabies free environment. Abbreviations: FAO: Food and Agricultural Organisation; DFID: Department for International Development; PME: Planning Monitoring and Evaluation, WHO: World Health Organisation

  • Constraints and Opportunities of Maize, Teff and wheat production: The case of Ambo s and Toke Kuttaye Districts, West Showa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    In Ethiopia, agriculture accounts for about 85% of the working forces, 90% of exports and 50% of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture is the main stay of the country. The study was initiated with the objective of Assessments of constraints and Opportunities of Maize,Teff and wheat production. The study used multi stage random sampling techniques. At first stage, from the existing districts in West Shawa Zone, two districts were selected based on their relative importance with respect to staple food crop production potential and their accessibility purposively. At the second stage, Six PAs, was selected randomly by random sampling method. At the third stage, probability proportional’s to size (PPS) were used to select respondents for interview. Accordingly a sample of 180 house hold heads was selected for interview. The major constraints of the study area were found to be: Crop worm and disease, Price problem, lack of inputs (chemicals, Fertilizers, Seed, etc.,). Lack of appropriate threshing facilities and storage facilities, high post harvest losses, lack of farming oxen, lack of rural credits, lack of education and lack of rural feeder roads. Major opportunities of the study area were found to be, availability of irrigable land, availability of fertile land, availability of motivated and hard working farmers, location of the districts for agricultural marketing’s and good weather condition. Policies, plans and programs should target this rural community. The construction of rural feeder roads, either, mechanization of the farming sector or provision of sufficient farming oxen is indispensible, provision of rural education programs are required, policy makers should focus in provisions of rural credit facilities with reasonable interest rates, crop worms and diseases should be controlled, price for inputs and outputs should be intervened.

  • Economic Appraisal of Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) Kano State, Nigeria

    The Kano River Irrigation (KRIP) is under the Hadejia Jamma’are River Basin Development Authourity (HJRBDA). It covers a total of 62,000.ha of land .The project was established to boost sustainable agricultural productivity of the climo-adaphic environment of the densely populated Kano in northwestern, Nigeria. The area receives a rainfall of less than 700 mm annually, this call’s for an alternative means of sustaining the population agriculturally. The general impression of irrigation project experience of Nigeria is that performance of most irrigation projects fall below pre-project expectation. Consequently irrigation project is viewed with circumspection in some quarters. The focus of the paper is to economically appraise growth of KRIP for 30 years from 1984. Modern discounting measures of Net Present Value (NPV) and Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) were used to assess the project’s four major crops: Rice, wheat, maize and tomato cultivated in the rainy and dry seasons. The result of the measures showed high positive values for both single and combined seasons. It was concluded that KRIP is the most economically viable, successful and sustainable project in Nigeria, and West Africa at large. It was recommended that remaining part of the project be completed in order to have full benefit of the project.

  • Assessment of farmers’ utilization of Soy food in Buno Bedele and Ilu Ababora zones of Southwestern Ethiopia

    The main objective of this study was to assess utilization of soybean based foods in Chawaka, Bedele and Darimu districts of southwestern Ethiopia. Primary data for the study was collected from 185 smallholder farmers of the districts. Descriptive, inferential and econometric models were used to analyze the data. Socio economic factors affecting utilization of soy food was identified using binary logistic model. The descriptive result of the study showed 62% of respondents use soy food at home. Concomitantly, 93.3% of female headed households use soy food. The study also pointed out only 32% of survey respondents got training on soybean food preparation. Out of the total respondents who got the training, 95.6% of them use soy food at home. Bureau of agriculture and natural resource management, Research centers and NGOs were organizations provided training on soybean food preparation. This enhanced farmers to use soy based foods such as soy milk, Dabo, Kolo and Shiro which are common on the study areas. The econometric result of the study showed that women headed households highly and significantly consume soybean food at home than male headed households. On other hands, both training on soybean food preparation and soybean production affect soy food consumption at home positively and significantly. Based on the findings, the study recommends concerning bodies including media, rural extension workers and NGOs to emphasize on creating awareness regarding nutritional importance of soybean so that production, consumption, processing and marketing of soybean will be promoted.

  • Leptospirosis: Epidemiology and Public Health Significance

    Climate change is a complex problem involving varied interactions between the environment, natural resources (land, crops, animals and water) and peoples. Global climate change poses the threat of serious social upheaval, population displacement, economic hardships and environmental degradation (ESAP, 2009). Agriculture and livestock are amongst the most climate sensitive economic sectors in the developing countries whilst the rural poor communities are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of the climate change (Kimaro and Chibinga, 2013). Climate change may affect livestock disease through several pathways both direct and indirect. It may facilitate establishment of novel imported infectious diseases in regions that were previously unable to support endemic transmissions. Most vector borne diseases that are expected to emerge because of climate change are zoonotic diseases. Climate change may cause amplification of the parasite population and have profound effects on the host-parasite assemblages. Another aspect of climate change is that an effect on the pathogen microorganism by increasing their virulence. Climate change also modify the disease ecology by complicating the life cycles of the different hosts and vectors and the microorganism, that make vector borne diseases difficult to predict and control. Stress caused due to the effect of climate change e.g. increased temperature, increased population density; high density of biting insects or lack of food may induce suppression of the immune response and lead to increased susceptibility of organisms to opportunistic pathogens.

  • Boron-zinc interaction in the absorption of micronutrients by cotton

    B-Zn interaction modifies the nutritional dynamics of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in cotton. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of B and Zn concentrations on the absorption of Cu, Fe and Mn in cotton plants cultivated in nutrient solution. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates, in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to four concentrations of B (0, 20, 40 and 80 µM L-1) and five concentrations of Zn (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 µM L-1). At 115 days after emergence, the plants were collected, divided into roots, shoots and fruits, and subjected to chemical analysis. The results allowed to conclude that the Cu content and total Cu in the fruit, total Cu in the roots, Cu use efficiency, Fe content in the roots, Fe absorption efficiency, Mn content in the fruit and Mn absorption efficiency of cotton are influenced by the concentrations of B in the solution. The interaction between B and Zn affected total Fe in the roots, Fe content and total Fe in the fruit, Fe transport efficiency, total Mn in the shoots and Mn transport efficiency; in addition, Zn acts differently according to the supply of B and vice versa.

  • Simple Technique to Proof Quality of Tannour Flat bread Flour

    Two samples of wheat flour from different source; namely, ration card system flour-supplied by Ministry of Trade- Iraq and Hilal brand flour–Turkey; were subjected for quality assessment to making flat bread, using a simple modified technique to ratify baker’s claims. Results illustrated that the Hilal flour exhibited superior characteristics indices than the ration card flour in producing total liberated, retained CO2 gas, final dough volume after 90 minutes fermentation, dough raising capacity and volume expansion ratio, although both flour were close in wet and dry gluten content %. Accordingly, the results of this test are coincident with the baker’s claims as they always praised Hilal flour and hated ration flour; meantime these results revealed to the suitability of this technique as rapid, easy and accurate in ratifying flour types for making flat bread.

  • Anthocyanin contains in Cratoxylum formosum

    Cratoxylum formosum is an indigenous Thai vegetable, mostly grown in the North-East of Thailand., It has been reported that the leaf extract showed strongly antioxidant and antimutagenic properties when compared with 108 species of indigenous Thai plants. The point toward of this do research was analyzed anthocyanin inhibit in Cratoxylum formosum. The means was assessment in dissimilarity exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) and divergence era (0 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes). The scrutinize chemically was weighed samples 5 g with modification exaction solutions and divergence era afterward absorbance samples at 535 nm by spectrophotometer. The fallout create that at 0 minutes in diversity exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) were 909.136±75.010, 737.743±734.871, 704.216±2.313and 825.006±14.226 mg/L respectively. At 30 minutes in modification exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) were 873.886±8.626, 788.503±17.094, 720.98±30.786 and 758.686±37.772 mg/L correspondingly and to finish period at 60 minutes in divergence exaction solutions (water, acetone, ethanol and methanol) were 903.96±75, 764.53±49.984, 735.236±45.783 and 824.38±14.718 mg/L respectively. The highest anthocyanin in Cratoxylum formosumwas exaction with water at 0 minutes (909.136±75.010mg/L). Cratoxylum formosum is an local Thai vegetable, regularly developed in the North-East of Thailand., It has been reported that the sheet take out showed formidably anthocyanin properties Thai plants.

  • Animal dung availability and their fertilizer values in a context of low soil fertility conditions for forage seed and crops production in Benin (West Africa)

    Livestock manure, feed biomass fed to animals that pass through digestive tract undigested and urine excreted from subsequent tissue metabolism, is conventionally termed as wastes. To optimize the use of animal manure for the purpose of agronomic processing or valorization, it is essential to know its availability and plant nutrients composition. The use of reference values ​​is a quick method of estimation. However, books on farm fertilizers generally offer only an average value that is not representative of the diversity of situations. The aim of this study was to (1) estimate the quantity of manures from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry, (2) determine the physico-chemical characteristics and plant nutrient contents of these droppings and (3) identify the inter-relationships between the physical characteristics (pH, EC and dry matter(DM)) and the most essential macronutrients (N, P and K). A total of 30 animal groups (herds or flocks) were survived per species and a total of 30 samples were collected over twelve months (January 1st to December 31, 2016) for DM, pH, electrical conductibility, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium contents for each sample. According to animal population of the country, the results of the study showed that, an amount of 1.630600 tons DM of cattle manure, 227800 tons DM of sheep dung, 136,900 tons DM of goat dung, 122,400 tons DM of pig dropping and 36,500 tons of poultry excreta are annually available in Benin. Physico-chemical and analyzes of droppings showed significant differences (P˂0.01) between mineral compositions of these dropping. Poultry manure are richer in macronutrients than other types of animal manure (N = 11.7 ± 3.9, P = 4.6 ± 2.3, K = 7.6 ± 1.3, Ca = 41.2 ± 16.7 g/kg), followed by goat and sheep manure (N = 6.0 ± 3.7, P = 4.9 ± 3.9, K…