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  • Metastatic bladder tumor from pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma to the urinary bladder is extremely rare and has only been reported 4 cases worldwide. We describe such a case presented with hematuria and dysuria after ten months of the initial diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry helped to confirm the diagnosis of metachronous metastasis. Six months after being diagnosed with the bladder metastasis, progression with severe right hydronephrosis and mild dilatation of the left pyelocaliceal system palliated with an UventaTM metallic ureteral stent and a double J ureteric catheter.

  • Nutritional Potential of Some Invasive Species of Macaronesia for Ruminants

    Macaronesia islands’ invasive plant use in animal feed or composting may bring economic and environmental benefits to the region. Arundo donax, Pennisetum setaceum, Agave americana, and Ricinus communis, present in the three archipelagos (Canary, Azores and Madeira), were characterized chemically and biologically. A. donax and P. setaceum showed elevated crude protein (CP) content, 13.25 and 16.33 DM%, respectively, and extremely high NDF values, 75.87 and 80.83 DM%, with a DM digestibility of 55.02 to 59.77%. A. americana showed a low NDF value (22.78 to 27.94 DM%) and a very low CP value (4.24 to 5.61 DM%). However, its DM digestibility was high (79.89 to 86.33%). R. communis presented the best values for CP (24.62%) and NDF (26.56 DM%), however, due to the presence of toxic substances (ricin), it cannot be easily used in animal feed. The P. setaceum and R. communis were found to be the least gas-producing forage, with A. americana being the major producer. To increase these plants’ value for animal feed, treatment with urea or NaOH to A. donax and P. setaceum, and enrichment with nitrogen to Agave is proposed. Due to its toxic properties, R. communis must be used in composting.

  • Priapism as A Warning Sign for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    CML is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder associated with activating mutations in tyrosine kinases forming a BCR-ABL fusion gene, causing hyperproliferation of neoplastic myeloid progenitors [1,2]. The incidence of CML peaks in the fourth and fifth decades of life [3]. In the United States, nearly 4,500 cases are diagnosed annually [3]. The onset of the disease is insidious due to the nonspecific initial “B symptoms,” such as increased fatigability, weight loss and weakness. The natural history of CML is slow with a median survival of three years if untreated [3,4]. The current treatment is targeted therapies to the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase using imatinib or nilotinib and hydroxyurea. Although B symptoms are common, priapism can be an initial presentation of CML in 1-5% of cases [5]. Priapism is a urological emergency defined by a sustained erection of four or more hours. Hyperviscous blood in leukemias, such as CML, prevents appropriate venous drainage of the corpora cavernosa, resulting in failure of detumescence [4]. This case reports highlights priapism as a presenting sign of CML and reviews the pathophysiology between the association.

  • Ptosis resolved after cataract surgery – A case report

    It is well known in the literature that adult ptosis can be induced or worsen by cataract surgery even with modern sutureless clear cornea phacoemulsification. [1, 2, 3, 4,5,6,7,8] We are presenting this unusual case was the opposite. The ptosis resolved after cataract surgery. A possible effect from the successful management of dry eye disease before cataract surgery is explained. Drooping of the unilateral upper eyelid is unilateral ptosis. Ptosis may be myogenic, neurogenic, and aponeurotic from healthy aging, injury, eye diseases. [9, 10] Ptosis also can be associated with hard contact lens wear, immunological, degenerative, or hereditary disorders, tumors, or infections. [7] Patients with ptosis often present with a lower position of the upper eyelid, complain of a tired appearance, and defect in their superior visual field even blurred vision. The levator muscle controls the position of the eyelid and is innervated by the oculomotor nerve. The Mueller muscle also controls partially by providing sympathetic innervation. The deficiency of these two muscles may cause ptosis. [11] Hering’s law of motor correspondence of a ptosis lid can affect the contralateral lid position [5, 7] as the levator muscles work in synchrony with each other. Therefore, unilateral ptosis can induce a retraction of the contralateral lid or a pseudo retraction. When ptosis is causing visual field defects, the innervation input to both eyelids will increase to reduce the ptosis. There will be a compensatory elevation of eyebrow to reduce the amount of ptosis. [11] These phenomena need to be considered in the evaluation of unilateral ptosis for surgery. Another essential examination, such as Margin Reflex Distance 1 (MRD1), is the crucial measurement for ptosis besides levator function and palpebral fissure. MRD1 is the distance from the margin of the upper lid to the central corneal reflex (normal is between 4.0-4.5 mm)….

  • Consequences of Covid 19 Pandemic on Children

    The Pandemic of SARS COV 2 popularly known as ‘Corona Virus19’ has affected 213 countries and territories around the world since the beginning of year 2020. All the countries have focused their attention acutely on the higher fatality rate the virus has caused among the elderly and launched a scientific enquiry on why children have emerged relatively unaffected. This pandemic has already amplified existing social fractures and inequalities and it is expected that all most all countries may take 5-10 years to return to their socio-economic status of 2019. Most importantly people are losing trust in healthcare system. As the Global tally of cases crosses 28 million cases and nearly 0.9 million deaths on 10th September 2020, with the highest daily case of 300,683 on 4 September 2020 and deaths of 8513 on 17 April 2020. However, the proportion or absolute number of cases and deaths in children is not readily available at Global, National, or even at local levels. In the beginning it was estimated that the children under 14 years contributed less than 0.5% and therefore the Children were not the face of this pandemic. The sub-national data in states reporting desegregated data in USA and India indicate that the children contribute between 0.1% to 10% in the recent weeks. The pandemic of COVID-19 initially appeared to cause only a mild illness in children and immediate health impact, or mortality rates were not alarming. A few weeks following the peak of COVID-19 epidemic in the US and the European Union, a novel systemic illness called Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been reported with devastating effect. Most importantly children’s risk being among its biggest victims, their lives are being changed in profound ways. What has escaped our attention is the long-term damage the cascading effect of COVID-19…

  • Sedative, hypothermic, anxiolytic effects and rapid radical scavenging property of aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana (Lamiaceae) in mice

    Vitex doniana is used ethnomedicinally for the management of madness, insanity, and epilepsy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the sedative, hypothermic and anxiolytic effects of crude aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana (AVD) in mice, as well as its rapid radical scavenging property. Doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg AVD were adopted for the pharmacological testing in mice of both sexes (n=6). The behavioural effects of the extract in the open field apparatus were determined. AVD was evaluated for its anxiolytic effect, using elevated T- maze, staircase, and hole-board models. While the sedative and hypothermic effects of the extract in mice were determined by assessments of ketamine-induced sleeping time and rectal temperature respectively. AVD was subjected to rapid radical scavenging test using thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography. The results showed AVD to have an inhibitory effect on CNS in the open field test. AVD demonstrated anxiolytic effect at 250 mg/kg, and sedative effect at 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The sedative effect of AVD at 500 and 1000 mg/kg was further revealed in ketamine-induced sleeping time and rectal temperature. AVD also showed strong free radical scavenging property attributed to the presence of fatty acid esters, terpenes, phenolics, and phenolic glycosides. AVD is acutely non-toxic and it possesses significant sedative, hypothermic and anxiolytic effects, which could in part be due to the presence of rapid free radical scavenging compounds, thus, providing pharmacological justification for its ethnomedicinal uses as a curative for madness and insanity.

  • THE DESIRE ORDER OF THE MALE CHARACTERS’ OEDIPUS COMPLEX-TAKE WEN JIANG’S FILM AS AN EXAMPLE

    In the film and television texts, the spiritual growth and changes of male characters are always accompanied by pains, that is, the Oedipus-style of killing the father and marrying the mother, which has also become a way for male characters to grow up. When the male characters cannot correctly deal with the order of these two desires in the process of self-construction, it will bring a devastating hit to the male characters. The male characters in Wen Jiang’s films often have a strong Oedipus complex, and this complex will ultimately affect the growth of the characters.

  • Fluodot Nanoparticle – A Promising Novel Delivery System For Veterinary Vaccine

    Most of the killed, inactivated, or live-attenuated pathogen vaccines are now replaced by modern vaccines containing isolated, highly purified antigenic protein subunits which are safer than live viruses or deactivated viruses. Another strategy is the development of nanoparticles which can mimic the repetitiveness, geometry, size and shape of the host-pathogen surface and provide improved stability and long lasting immunogenicity, as well as serve as vehicles to deliver multiple copies of the antigens to the target cells. Several interesting advances have been made recently in the area of protein nanotechnology and here, we provide a concise review of one such novel nanoparticle called FluoDot which may be effectively used as a delivery system in some veterinary medicine applications.

  • HOW SURGERY SAVES MONEY: A PARADOX EXPLAINED

    “A new analysis from U.S. federal government actuaries say that Americans spent $3.65 trillion on healthcare in 2018, according to a report from Axios. “1 This impacts on companies, where health insurance benefits are the second largest cost in a service business, and 3rd largest in manufacturing business2. Back pain alone accounted for $86 billion a year in 2008 3. The top 5 expenses for a commercial line of insurance were for back pain, osteoarthritis, childbirth, injuries, and non-hip/non- spine fractures4. Work related injuries cost an estimated $1.2 trillion annually, which includes lost wage payment, medical care, and short and long term disability5. Of all health care expenses paid by a company, workers’ compensation becomes the most expensive, since the company pays not only for medical care, but also the lost wage of the employee. This is usually 66% of the employee’s salary, which come to the employee tax free. This provides the employee with essentially the same income received when at work. These generous benefits lead insurance adjusters to suspect potential for abuse. Estimates of fraudulent claims range from 1% to 80% depending on unsubstantiated reports in the insurance literature6,7,8,9. However, methods to identify fraudulent cases are not always productive. The State Auditor of the State of California reported that the $30,000,000 a year spent by the State of California to detect workers’ compensation fraud was not cost effective10. Detection methods used include Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs). However, Feeler and Schapmire in a review of 180,000 patients found that FCEs were subjective and had no predictive nor diagnostic value11. Attempts to blame prolonged recovery on psychological issues, using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI are consistently thrown out of court often 12. The most reliable method of fraud detection is the Pain Validity Test, which can predict with 95%…

  • Disaster management strategy for avoiding the future losses by a slope failure at Nanhuan road, Fuxin area, Northeast China

    Many surrounding areas in the vicinity of failed slope at Nanhuan road, Fuxin area, Northeast China are witnessed as the signs of disaster. The observed settlement as wastage of an active mass in the area has been observed after the excessive precipitation in 2012 (May to October) which caused infrastructural damages (Roads at the top and bottom of the failure zone), agricultural fields and residential areas. Therefore, the paper proposes examining this subject. An extensive field investigation was conducted in the area of Fuxin, west of Liaoning province China. It is recommended and suggested that a series of disaster prevention and both structural and non-structural mitigation measures with the involvement of government and local community are required, to be prepared in advance for avoiding the future economic loss as well as the impending disaster in the area. This paper also highlights the need of investigation in response mechanism and forward planning for awareness initiatives: to avoid the future hazard in the remotest failure zones of Fuxin area, Northeast China.