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  • Image Restoration for University Leaders’ Public Health COVID-19 Response: A Case Study of Notre Dame

    Do as I say, not as I do is a common phrase that applies to the case of Notre Dame’s president as he began the Fall 2020 semester chastising students for gathering in large groups off campus leading to the spread of COVID-19 while he, just a month later, gathered unmasked in the U.S. White House Rose Garden to celebrate the nomination of a Notre Dame alum to the Supreme Court. This study draws upon image restoration strategies in crisis response literature to examine Notre Dame and its president’s public response to both the two-week move to remote education in Fall 2020 following COVID-19 outbreak among its students and the unmasked attendance to an event that resulted in Notre Dame’s president testing positive for COVID-19. Overall, evasion of responsibility and corrective action typified the university’s response to students’ behaviors that led to public health risk, but mortification along with contradictory messages evading responsibility typified the individual response of the university’s president that led to public health risk. Of interest to the case is the lack of religious appeal intertwined in the image restoration strategies used in the president’s apology yet the use of religious appeal in the university’s accusations against student public health behavior. Given that Notre Dame is a religiously affiliated university and the president is clergy, the inconsistent use of religious appeal may undermine the image restoration rhetoric of the president.

  • Non-Contact Respiratory Rate Monitoring with raybaby in an NICU: An Observational Study

    Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the reliability of respiratory rate obtained by a non-contact technology with respect to a medically validated monitor among preterm babies. Design: This observational study compared the respiratory rates from raybaby’s non-contact technology and FDA approved Earlysense unit for the same instants of time through 760 hours of monitoring. 18 preterm babies in the NICU of a paediatric specialty hospital in India were considered for the study. The raybaby device was installed in front of the incubator and the contact-free FDA approved device was placed below the mattress of the incubator. The Respiratory Rate monitored was displayed on the device’s monitoring screen. Respiratory rates from both devices were compared to calculate the agreement between the values. Correlation, Accuracy, Hit Percentage and Fit Curves for the non-contact technology of raybaby with respect to the clinically certified device. Results: With 760 hours of monitoring, 37404 breathing instances were analysed. This yielded an accuracy of 98%. 95% of the data points fell within the +/- 5 units error range which is usually followed by medical devices. Conclusions: Raybaby uses a non-contact technology for monitoring Respiratory Rate. The average breathing rate observed was 33 to 43 breaths per minute, which falls within the breathing range of 30-60 breaths per minute. From the 37404 data points analysed, raybaby® establishes further proof for the breathing range and trend found in babies. The accuracy of non-contact technology for respiratory monitoring establishes great potential for making health monitoring less intrusive and efficient for use. This renders the technology as a hopeful tool for respiratory monitoring to deploy at observation units during the pandemic.

  • Transtheoretical model as a framework for promoting cardiovascular health through behaviour change: a systematic review

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the single leading cause of death around the globe. The Transtheoretical model (TTM) is a successful framework for guiding behaviour change programmes for several health behaviours, yet there are limited reviews on how TTM has been used to facilitate behaviour change associated with reduced CVD. Therefore, the aims of this systematic review are to determine (i) how TTM has been used in promoting physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking cessation and (ii) gaps in knowledge in the use of stage-based model to improve physical activity, intake of fruit and vegetables, and smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: The approach to this systematic review was informed by current recommendations known as Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Results: Constructs of TTM were used in the design of studies, facilitation of health behaviour change, monitoring of change in the movement of the participants across the change continuum, and evaluation of the effectiveness of health behaviour programmes. TTM was incorporated with other models, including Health Belief Model (HBM), social-ecological model, and social cognitive theory to facilitate behaviour change. There were limited studies that used all the four constructs of TTM to promote health behaviour change. Conclusion: TTM is a promising tool for designing, facilitating, monitoring, and evaluating behaviour change associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD). TTM may be incorporated with other models, including HBM, social-ecological model, and social cognitive theory to facilitate behaviour change.

  • Surgical difficulties with a giant carcinoid in the anterior mediastinum

    Atypical carcinoid in the anterior mediastinum is a rare neoplasm. In our case the huge mediastinal carcinoid was treated with surgery using a median sternotomy and clamshell incision because of the extension of the tumor. We describe our difficulties under the surgery and take a look at the literature.

  • Departmentalization in Elementary Schools: Contradictions Teachers Confront

    This paper presents analyses of observational and interview data gathered in a study of exemplary fourth-grade teachers from five states. The central issue explored is the relative merits of self-contained and departmentalized models of instruction. We found no achievement differences in the classrooms by organizational pattern, but differences in the instruction offered in these two models were identified, and mixed views of the relative advantages of either organization plan were expressed by the participants. A key tension was whether these organizational plans are intended to primarily benefit teachers or students. However, the complexities of the cost/benefit concerns are the findings that this study highlights.

  • The Influence of Teacher-students’ Interaction on Motivation to Learn Mathematics Among High School Students

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher-students’ interaction on motivation to learn mathematics among high school students. The study was guided by Keller ARCS model of motivation. Descriptive research design was employed in the study. The target population was all 8357 Form Four students from 113 public high schools in Laikipia County. Simple random sampling was used to select sample schools, sample classes and respondents. The sample consisted of 392 mathematics students who participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Cronbach’s alpha was used in estimating the reliability coefficients of research instruments which were acceptable and above 0.7. Data was analyzed using simple regression analysis.The finding showed that teacher-students’ interaction has a significant influence on motivation to learn mathematics. The study concludes that in order to improve effectiveness of teaching and learning, teachers need to use the relevant classroom interaction practices wisely so as to guide and monitor students in the learning process for better motivation so as to enhance acquisition of knowledge.


    The objective of the research was to determine the effects of the “Body Workout” aerobic exercises on morphological characteristics of female university students after a period of 2 months with training sessions in the duration of three hours per week. The sample of research participants was made up of female university students from the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Novi Sad (AGE = 22.13±0.98 years) that were actively included in the workout program. The total sample participating in the research comprised of 52 participants, 25 of which comprised the experimental group (AGE=22.11±0.89; TV=166.11±5.01) while the remaining 27 of them comprised the control group (AGE=22.45±0.78 years, TV=169.51±5.04). The experimental group followed the “Body Workout” aerobic exercises model and the control group followed the regular curriculum for the university course of Fitness (Rekreacija in Serbian) at the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Novi Sad. At the initial measuring, there were no statistically significant differences among the participants (P=0.41). Physical changes that occurred in the participants’ bodies during the research period of two months were followed by means of monitoring of twelve morphological characteristics. According to the research results, significant effects were determined in transformation of morphological characteristics among the members of the experimental group on the level of the entire system (P=0.00) and the individual differences could be perceived in the final measuring in variables Circumference of the lower leg (p=0.05), Skinfold of biceps brachii (p=0.00), Skinfold of triceps brachii (p=0.00), Skinfold of the forearm (p=0.00), Subscapula skinfold (p=0.02) and Abdominal skinfold (p=0.00) among the members of the experimental group. That is an indication that the experimental Body Workout program had a significant impact on the above mentioned characteristics. At the same time, it was determined that the experimental program of aerobic exercises produced the greatest effects on…

  • Foreign direct investment, Agriculture and economic growth: ARDL and causality approach for Rwanda

    This study tested the relationship between Rwanda’s economic growth, foreign direct investment, and labor in agricultural spanning between 1970 and 2017. In this paper, the ARDL “bounds” test method is used to analyze the co-integration problem of variables with a constant level relationship. Co-integration coefficients were estimated using the ARDLs model. After verifying the long-term (co-integration) equilibrium relationship of economic growth within the variables, the error correction model is used to estimate the short-term coefficients. We found that agriculture and foreign direct investment have becomes an engine depending of Rwanda’s economic development. The FDI has a causal relationship to economic growth; while labor have no causal relationship to economic growth. The Rwandan government should promote macroeconomic policies to encourage foreign direct investment and promote economic growth in agriculture.

  • Toward a bridge theory of modernity: Seeing self and society as processes

    The examination and exploration for the nature and meanings of Modernity have been recently presented in philosophy, sociology and psychology books and journal articles. This article presents some of the important ideas in these disciplines and provides a perspective that integrates three disciplines (Philosophy, Sociology, and Psychology) and five authors’ views on Modernity (Charles Taylor, Jaan Valsiner, Anthony Giddens, Herbert Hermans, and Hartman Rosa). The paper first presents an overview of these authors. It goes on to illustrate several common themes of their work: 1) the role of narrative and a semiotic perspective as tools for understanding modernity, 2) a developmental orientation and exploration of how self and society might be seen as developmental processes, and 3) a beginning of a reorienting of philosophy, sociology and psychology as interconnected disciplines. The goal of presenting the views of these authors is to gain a perspective on why it is valuable to understand the historical period we live in (modernity), the roles played by narrative and semiotics and the developmental nature of humans and their culture, and how listening to the melody and tone of modernity aids in understanding modernity.

  • PUNICA GRANATUM Vrs COVID – 19 Fruit to Drug

    Punica granatum is historically known worldwide as a versatile medicinal fruit. 2 major varieties are presented (i) indo Ayurvedic type (Punica Ayurvedica ?) that is small, harsh and yields no juice and (ii) the juice variety which is commercialised. Indo-Iranian joint effort presents a tome of textual data pertaining to the medicinal aspects of Punica. Gallagic group. Enantiomers. Antagoniostic. Ayurvedic texts and Occidental research modelled papers in tabulated form chronologically succinctly bringing out the evidence based historiography & medico-cultural heritage. On such platform a range of formulations; fruit-to-finished product are presented for the 1st time machine makeable and very specifically also by hand, at home. Poly pathology spectrum; versatile therapeutic range; medico-legal; lyophilisation; sterilisation; etc. aspects are also indicated. Includes Tablets; Suspensions for General to Geriatric case types. Ground breaking. Frank.