American Journal of Agricultural Research


Relative plant parts, chemical composition and in vitro gas production evaluation of different Watania corn hybrids silage

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Relative plant parts, chemical composition and in vitro gas production evaluation of different Watania corn hybrids silage Gaafar, H.M.A.1; W.A. Riad1; Ghada S. El-Esawy1 and M.E.A. Nasser2 1Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 2Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt. Four Commercial corn hybrids included 3 white hybrids, single crosses (SC) Watania 4 (W4) and Watania 6 (W6) and three-way cross (TWC) Watania 11 (W11) and 1 yellow hybrid (SC) Watania 97 (W97) were cultivated at 30 thousand plants per feddan, harvested at 92 days, chopped and ensiled in plastic bags for 35 days. Results revealed that W6 showed the highest ear content (36.60%), W97 the highest stems content (52.47%) W11 had the highest leaves content (18.65%). Watania 11 showed higher CP content and W97 had higher CF and fiber fractions content, while W6 had higher contents of EE, NFE and NFC in comparison with the other hybrids. Gas production at different incubation times as well as gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (a), insoluble fraction (b) and soluble and insoluble fractions (a + b) as well as the gas production rate constant for the insoluble fraction (c) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher for W6 than that of W97 with insignificant differences with both W4 and W11. Gas production from the fermentation of soluble fraction (GPSF) of W6 and insoluble fraction (GPNSF) of W4 and W6 were significantly (P<0.05) compared to W97. The concentration of SCFA was significantly (P<0.05) higher for W4 and W6 compared to W97 and not significantly (P>0.05) different with W11. The predicted dry matter intake (DMI) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) of corn silage were higher significantly (P<0.05) for W6 than that of W97, whereas were nearly similar for ...

Comparison of Customary and Formal Tenure Systems in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State: A case of Assosa District

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Comparison of Customary and Formal Tenure Systems in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State: A case of Assosa District Cheneke Atomsa Merga Bahirdar University Institute of land Though the global trend is to manage land through formal systems, still there is debate among scholars on importance of customary tenure systems and its treatment in modern land formalization. The study done in the study area also indicates the contradicting debate on both tenure systems, whether customary land tenure activities should recognized as it is or selectively in modern land formalization. However, their argument was not after studying and comparing both tenure systems simultaneously, making major problem needed to be identified in this study. Therefore, the study in this thesis aimed to assess and compare customary and formal tenure systems. Both descriptive and explanatory case study type of research was used in this study. Similarly, both qualitative and quantities data were collected from primary and secondary data sources. The primary data were collected by using different data collection tools like interview question, In-depth-key informant interview, focal group discussion and field observation. The survey data obtained from 360 house hold heads were analyzed by using SPSS (IBM-21) in which descriptive cross-tabulation model was mainly used. To compare means of continues variables, one –way ANOVA and descriptive system were also used. The study findings from House hold survey indicate significant variation between formal and customary tenure systems at (P< 0.05) and (P <0.01) based on socio-economic factors (except variation in sex and marital status (p > 0.05);land related explanatory variables like land accessibility, defining right, ensuring tenure security, legalization of land transfer and conflict reduction and resolution; and Local farmers ‘perception on importance of modern land formalization -that was positive in formalized tenure and negative in customary tenure ...

Extraction and Characterization of Oil and Cake from Neem Seed Kernels Collected from Hamelmalo Region

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Extraction and Characterization of Oil and Cake from Neem Seed Kernels Collected from Hamelmalo Region Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi*, Adugna Haile, and Daniel Brhane Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College The most researched tree, Neem (Azadirachta indicaA. Juss) is found to African countries including Eritrea(locally named as Miim).It has an important in the global context because neem seed, leaves, bark etc. are considered as biological pesticides against insect pests, nematodal infestations and diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and storage pests in the agricultural crops without showing any harmful effects. In Eritrea, the usages of neem products are meager; hence this project projects the introduction of neem oil and cake as ecofriendly pesticide. Seeds of neem collected, de-husked and attained the kernels for the extraction of oil and cakes by cold press extraction method with the help of a devise that was made locally. About 5kg of neem kernels can be used once in this screwed devise which can be streamed 15% of oil and 4.25kg cake within 20-30 minutes. The physical and chemical properties such as specific gravity, viscosity, free fatty acid content, iodine value and saponification values were determined as per the standard procedure to authenticate the pesticidal properties of neem oil. The organic acid contents of neem oil were also analyzed to verify their bioactive properties. Keywords: Neem Cake; Neem Oil, Physico-Chemical Properties; Botanical pesticide; Fertilizer ...

Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes Dejen Bekis FNRRTC Garlic production in most areas of Ethiopia especially in Amhara region is constrained by shortage of varieties, occasional ice storm raining, poor agronomic practice coupled with susceptibility to pests. Forty nine garlic genotypes were evaluated to determine magnitude of genetic variability for bulb yield and yield related traits in garlic accessions recently collected by Debreziet Agricultural Research center and Fogera National Rice Research and Training Center (FNRRTC) from different parts of Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out using 7x7 simple lattice design with two replications at FNRRTC in 2017/18. Data were collected for ten agronomic traits and analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p<0.01) among the genotypes for all traits except bulb length and yield per plant. Bulb yield per plant ranged from 1 to 38.35 gram with a mean of 12.4 gram. Moreover, three genotypes (G-17, G-22 and G-47) produced higher yield ranging from 15.7 to 38.35gram than the yield of four check varieties Tseday(G-1), Chefe(G-4), Kurfitu(G-30) and HL(G-36).Ten (20.4%) genotypes were early maturing than the check varieties. The genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) ranged from 5.1 and 5.4% for days to maturity to 55.5 and 68.9% for yield per plant. All traits had high broad sense heritability while genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM) ranged from 10.0 for days to maturity to 98.4% for neck diameter. Except days to maturity, all characters had high heritability coupled with high GAM which reflecting the presence of additive gene action for the expression of these traits and improvement of these traits could be done through selection. Keywords: Garlic (Allium sativum L.), Genetic advance, Genetic variability, ...

Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention Kibret Ketema, Jafer Mume, Abdulalziz Teha, & Alemayehu Birri Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Fedis Agricultural Research Centre Agriculture is the dominant economic activity and the base of livelihood for the residents of East Hararghe Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The livelihood of the residents of East Hararghe Zone dependent on agriculture; however, the sector in the Zone is at subsistence level and efforts has been put to adapt and promote improved technologies that would help to boost production is not satisfactory. For the successful research and development intervention, analysis of the existing crop production system is crucial to understand the real situation. In this line, this study was with specific objectives of identifying crop production systems, and prioritizing major constraints in the study area.The study was used Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) tools such as household survey, focus group discussions, pair-wise ranking, and field observation. A total of 329 farm householders were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of PRA indicates that five major farming typologies:-Chat/Maize highland mixed farming system (CMHMFS), Sorghum/maize/cash crops midland mixed farming system (SMCMMFS), Coffee/maize mixed farming system (CMMFS), Sorghum/groundnut lowland mixed farming system (SGLMFS) and Agro pastoral/pastoral farming system (APPFS) were identified in the Zone. Results of PRA study revealed that the main crop production constraints were lack of improved varieties, shortage were identified as the first limiting factor followed by insect pests, shortage of improved seeds supply, erratic rainfall distribution, soil fertility declining and extension service availability in decreasing order of priority. Hence, there is need for research, development and institutional interventions to alleviate the identified constraints to crop production in the study area through holistic ...

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American Journal of Agricultural Research

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