American Journal of Agricultural Research

Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Genetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and Yield Related Traits in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Genotypes Dejen Bekis FNRRTC Garlic production in most areas of Ethiopia especially in Amhara region is constrained by shortage of varieties, occasional ice storm raining, poor agronomic practice coupled with susceptibility to pests. Forty nine garlic genotypes were evaluated to determine magnitude of genetic variability for bulb yield and yield related traits in garlic accessions recently collected by Debreziet Agricultural Research center and Fogera National Rice Research and Training Center (FNRRTC) from different parts of Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out using 7x7 simple lattice design with two replications at FNRRTC in 2017/18. Data were collected for ten agronomic traits and analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p<0.01) among the genotypes for all traits except bulb length and yield per plant. Bulb yield per plant ranged from 1 to 38.35 gram with a mean of 12.4 gram. Moreover, three genotypes (G-17, G-22 and G-47) produced higher yield ranging from 15.7 to 38.35gram than the yield of four check varieties Tseday(G-1), Chefe(G-4), Kurfitu(G-30) and HL(G-36).Ten (20.4%) genotypes were early maturing than the check varieties. The genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) ranged from 5.1 and 5.4% for days to maturity to 55.5 and 68.9% for yield per plant. All traits had high broad sense heritability while genetic advance as percent of mean (GAM) ranged from 10.0 for days to maturity to 98.4% for neck diameter. Except days to maturity, all characters had high heritability coupled with high GAM which reflecting the presence of additive gene action for the expression of these traits and improvement of these traits could be done through selection. Keywords: Garlic (Allium sativum L.), Genetic advance, Genetic variability, ...

Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Characterization and Analysis of Crop production System for Research and Development Intervention Kibret Ketema, Jafer Mume, Abdulalziz Teha, & Alemayehu Birri Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Fedis Agricultural Research Centre Agriculture is the dominant economic activity and the base of livelihood for the residents of East Hararghe Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The livelihood of the residents of East Hararghe Zone dependent on agriculture; however, the sector in the Zone is at subsistence level and efforts has been put to adapt and promote improved technologies that would help to boost production is not satisfactory. For the successful research and development intervention, analysis of the existing crop production system is crucial to understand the real situation. In this line, this study was with specific objectives of identifying crop production systems, and prioritizing major constraints in the study area.The study was used Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) tools such as household survey, focus group discussions, pair-wise ranking, and field observation. A total of 329 farm householders were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of PRA indicates that five major farming typologies:-Chat/Maize highland mixed farming system (CMHMFS), Sorghum/maize/cash crops midland mixed farming system (SMCMMFS), Coffee/maize mixed farming system (CMMFS), Sorghum/groundnut lowland mixed farming system (SGLMFS) and Agro pastoral/pastoral farming system (APPFS) were identified in the Zone. Results of PRA study revealed that the main crop production constraints were lack of improved varieties, shortage were identified as the first limiting factor followed by insect pests, shortage of improved seeds supply, erratic rainfall distribution, soil fertility declining and extension service availability in decreasing order of priority. Hence, there is need for research, development and institutional interventions to alleviate the identified constraints to crop production in the study area through holistic ...

Induce systemic Resistance against root rot and wilt diseases in faba bean as a possible and effective control

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Induce systemic Resistance against root rot and wilt diseases in faba bean as a possible and effective control Manal, Sayed Mohammed Khalila*; Mohamed Hassan Abdel-Rahem Hassanb; Amer Fayz Mahmoudb and Kadry Mostafa Mohamed Morsya aPlant Pathology Dept., Faculty of Agric., Assiut Univ., 71526 Assiut, Egypt bLeguminous Crops and Fodder Dis. Res. Dep., Plant Pathol. Res. Instit., ARC, Giza 12619, Egypt Root rot and wilt diseases caused by soil borne pathogenic fungi is the most sever disease attacks faba bean plants in New valley Governorate, Egypt. Efficacies of some plant resistance elicitors viz.: salicylic Acid (SA), ascorbic acid (AA), humic acid (HA) and Bion was evaluated as faba bean seed soaking, compared to untreated control treatment under greenhouse and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, all the tested chemical inducers have no effect or little effect on linear growth of all tested pathogenic fungal isolates. On the other hand, all tested chemical inducers at different concentrations were decreased the root rot and wilt severity. Salicylic acid at 400 and Bion at 1000 ppm recorded the lowest root rot and wilt severity. All chemical inducers individually or in combination with R. leguminosarum significantly decreased root rot and wilt diseases under greenhouse and field conditions as well as increased total yield /feddan under field conditions. The combination between chemical inducers and R. leguminosarum more effective for controlling root rot and wilt diseases and increased seed yield/feddan than individually treatment. Application of SA and Bion + R. leguminosarum recorded the lowest percentage of root rot and wilt severity and the highest plant growth and yield parameter during both growing seasons. Keywords: Faba bean, Root rot and wilt diseases, Chemical inducers, Seed yield ...

Review on the protein content of different wheat varieties

Review Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Review on the protein content of different wheat varieties Abraha Gebregewergis Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center In the world wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit quality differences. Pakistan and Ethiopia are best examples of wheat producers found in different agro-climatic ranges. Grain protein percentage is an important component of grain quality. Protein contents measured by standard Kjeldahl method show a higher level than protein contents calculated from NIRS. Generally grain protein contents in wheat varies between 8% and 17%, depending on genetic make-up and on external factors associated with the crop. The Pakistan’s results regarding standard Kjeldahl analysis of protein reveals highest level of 11.2% protein in variety Bakhtawar-92, while Tatara, Watan, Bhakkar-01, Wafaq-01, Gandam-2002 and Chudry-97 contain 11.0% protein. The lowest value is present in Saleem-2000 (9.0%). Wheat grain quality of three bread wheat varieties namely Pavon 76, HAR 2501 and HAR 2536 grown in Arsi and Bale areas of Ethiopia were determined. The wheat varieties had a protein content of 10.60, 11.53 and 10.70%, respectively. Relatively, the wheat varieties collected from Ethiopia has higher amount of protein content compared to those of Pakistan wheat varieties. This variation may be due to method differences but not significant at 95% confidence level. This study is significant to further improve their nutritional excellence. Keywords: Bread Wheat; Grain Quality; Wheat varieties; Protein content ...

A Study on birds and fish Diversity, abundance and their Conservation Status of Bahire Giorgis Lake

Research Article of American Journal of Agricultural Research Faba bean variety development for quality and disease resistance for potential areas Deressa Tesfaye, Gizachew Yilma, Gebeyew Achenif, Tadesse Sefera, Tamene Temesgen and Temesgen Abo EIAR Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) variety named ‘Numan’ with the pedigree designation of ‘EH06007-2’ has been released by Kulumsa agricultural research centre in Ethiopia. The variety is best adapted to altitudes ranging between 1800 to 3000 m.a.s.l. areas of Ethiopia and similar agro-ecologies. The variety was developed through hybridization between F5 generation (EH99037-5) and exotic material (ILB1563) and resulted in breeder id designation of ‘EH06007-2’. It has been tested at Kulumsa, Asassa, Bokoji, Koffale, Holetta, Adadi, Jeldu, Adet, Shambu and Sinana, from 2012 to 2013 main cropping seasons. The seed weight of this variety is 36.5% heavier than the seed weight of the variety used as the standard check. Despite ‘Numan’ showed relatively (-2.77%) less seed yield advantage across a range of environments and years than the standard checks Dosha and Tumsa in the National Variety Trials based on most stability measurement parameters. However, this variety is the seed size and moderately resistant to the major faba bean diseases such as chocolate spot and rust, and it could be cultivated across a number of locations in the mid and high-altitude areas of Ethiopia for increasing productivity of the crop and important variety for foreign export. Keywords: Vicia faba L, National yield trail, Preliminary variety trial, Grain yield, Seed size, Disease resistance ...

Dr. Ajai Kumar Srivastav
Emeritus Professor, Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University

Dr. Osman Tiryaki
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Terzioglu Campus, 17020, ÇANAKKALE, TURKEY

Prof.Dr. Süleyman Taban
Professor, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Ankara University, Ankara-TURKEY

Dr. Nikolay Dimitrov Panayotov
Professor & Head, Department of Horticulture, Agricultural University

Dr.  Samuel Ohikhena Agele 
Lecture/Researcher, Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management, Federal University of Technology

Dr. Ghousia Begum
Principal Scientist, Toxicology Unit, Biology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology

Dr. Sirisha Adamala
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Engineering, Vignan's University

Dr. Mala Trivedi
Professor, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, AUUP, Lucknow-226028

Dr Ambreesh Singh Yadav
Scientific Officer, U.P. Council of Agricultural Research, Lucknow, U.P., India

Dr. Abd El-Aleem Saad Soliman Desoky
Professor, Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University

Dr. Chang-Hong Liu
Professor, School of life sciences, Nanjing University, P.R. China

Dr. İrfan Özberk
Professor & Head, Dept. of Field Crops, Fac. of Agri, The Univ. of Harran, Sanliurfa, Turkey

Dr. Papadakis Ioannis
Assistant Professor, Laboratory of Pomology, Agricultural University of Athens

Associate Professor & Head, Center for Research in Ethno & Medico Botany Dr. R.M.L. PG. College ( C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY)

Dr. Ayman EL Sabagh
Assistant professor, agronomy department, faculty of agriculture, kafresheikh university, Egypt; Visiting scientist at Field Crops Department ,Faculty of Agriculture , Cukurova University, Turkey

Dr. Alaa Jabbar Abd Al-Manhel
Assistant Professor, Agriculture college /Basra University

Dr. Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo
Scientist, Regional Research & Technology Transfer Station, (OUAT), Semiliguda

Dr. Sedat Karadavut
Assistant Professor, Agricultural Structers and İrrigation (Biosystems Engineering), Trakya University/TURKEY

Dr. Abhishek Naik
Area Manager, Technology development department

Dr. Ionel BONDOC
Associate Professor, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Iasi (ROMANIA), Department of Public Health

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American Journal of Agricultural Research