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Transtheoretical model as a framework for promoting cardiovascular health through behaviour change: a systematic review

Review Article of International Research Journal of Public Health Transtheoretical model as a framework for promoting cardiovascular health through behaviour change: a systematic review PhD, Ejiofor A. Ezika1* , MBBS, Adaobi Nwankwo-Ezika2 1School of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland. 2Emergency Medicine Department, Southend University Hospital. Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the single leading cause of death around the globe. The Transtheoretical model (TTM) is a successful framework for guiding behaviour change programmes for several health behaviours, yet there are limited reviews on how TTM has been used to facilitate behaviour change associated with reduced CVD. Therefore, the aims of this systematic review are to determine (i) how TTM has been used in promoting physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking cessation and (ii) gaps in knowledge in the use of stage-based model to improve physical activity, intake of fruit and vegetables, and smoking cessation. Materials and Methods: The approach to this systematic review was informed by current recommendations known as Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Results: Constructs of TTM were used in the design of studies, facilitation of health behaviour change, monitoring of change in the movement of the participants across the change continuum, and evaluation of the effectiveness of health behaviour programmes. TTM was incorporated with other models, including Health Belief Model (HBM), social-ecological model, and social cognitive theory to facilitate behaviour change. There were limited studies that used all the four constructs of TTM to promote health behaviour change. Conclusion: TTM is a promising tool for designing, facilitating, monitoring, and evaluating behaviour change associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD). TTM may be incorporated with other models, including HBM, social-ecological model, and social cognitive theory to facilitate behaviour change. Keywords: Behaviour change; Transtheoretical model; Systematic review; Cardiovascular health ...

Surgical difficulties with a giant carcinoid in the anterior mediastinum

Case Report of International Journal of Case Reports Surgical difficulties with a giant carcinoid in the anterior mediastinum Miklos Boros MD1*, Ulf Hermansson MD1, Ingemar Vanhanen PhD1 1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden. Atypical carcinoid in the anterior mediastinum is a rare neoplasm. In our case the huge mediastinal carcinoid was treated with surgery using a median sternotomy and clamshell incision because of the extension of the tumor. We describe our difficulties under the surgery and take a look at the literature. Abbreviations: GP – general practitioner  PET - positron emission tomography CT- computed tomography MDT – multidisciplinary team Keywords: anterior mediastinum, giant carcinoid, surgery ...

Departmentalization in Elementary Schools: Contradictions Teachers Confront

Research article of American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews Departmentalization in Elementary Schools: Contradictions Teachers Confront Richard L. Allington University of Tennessee. This paper presents analyses of observational and interview data gathered in a study of exemplary fourth-grade teachers from five states. The central issue explored is the relative merits of self-contained and departmentalized models of instruction. We found no achievement differences in the classrooms by organizational pattern, but differences in the instruction offered in these two models were identified, and mixed views of the relative advantages of either organization plan were expressed by the participants. A key tension was whether these organizational plans are intended to primarily benefit teachers or students. However, the complexities of the cost/benefit concerns are the findings that this study highlights. Keywords: Contradictions Teachers Confront; Departmentalization ...

The Influence of Teacher-students’ Interaction on Motivation to Learn Mathematics Among High School Students

Research article of American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews The Influence of Teacher-students’ Interaction on Motivation to Learn Mathematics Among High School Students in Laikipia County, Kenya Mbuthia Ngunjiri (PhD) Laikipia University, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher-students’ interaction on motivation to learn mathematics among high school students. The study was guided by Keller ARCS model of motivation. Descriptive research design was employed in the study. The target population was all 8357 Form Four students from 113 public high schools in Laikipia County. Simple random sampling was used to select sample schools, sample classes and respondents. The sample consisted of 392 mathematics students who participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Cronbach’s alpha was used in estimating the reliability coefficients of research instruments which were acceptable and above 0.7. Data was analyzed using simple regression analysis.The finding showed that teacher-students’ interaction has a significant influence on motivation to learn mathematics. The study concludes that in order to improve effectiveness of teaching and learning, teachers need to use the relevant classroom interaction practices wisely so as to guide and monitor students in the learning process for better motivation so as to enhance acquisition of knowledge. Keywords: Teacher-students’ interaction; Motivation to learn ...

EFFECTS OF GROUP EXERCISE PROGRAM ON MORPHOLOGICAL STATUS OF FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Research Article of Internal Journal of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation EFFECTS OF GROUP EXERCISE PROGRAM ON MORPHOLOGICAL STATUS OF FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Čokorilo, N.1, Vasić, G.1, Prebeg, G.2, Tomašević, D.2, and Pantelić, S.3 1Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia. 2Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. 3Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia. The objective of the research was to determine the effects of the “Body Workout” aerobic exercises on morphological characteristics of female university students after a period of 2 months with training sessions in the duration of three hours per week. The sample of research participants was made up of female university students from the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Novi Sad (AGE = 22.13±0.98 years) that were actively included in the workout program. The total sample participating in the research comprised of 52 participants, 25 of which comprised the experimental group (AGE=22.11±0.89; TV=166.11±5.01) while the remaining 27 of them comprised the control group (AGE=22.45±0.78 years, TV=169.51±5.04). The experimental group followed the “Body Workout” aerobic exercises model and the control group followed the regular curriculum for the university course of Fitness (Rekreacija in Serbian) at the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Novi Sad. At the initial measuring, there were no statistically significant differences among the participants (P=0.41). Physical changes that occurred in the participants’ bodies during the research period of two months were followed by means of monitoring of twelve morphological characteristics. According to the research results, significant effects were determined in transformation of morphological characteristics among the members of the experimental group on the level of the entire system (P=0.00) and the individual differences could be perceived in the final measuring in variables Circumference of the lower leg ...

Foreign direct investment, Agriculture and economic growth: ARDL and causality approach for Rwanda

Research Article of Journal of Modern Economy Foreign direct investment, Agriculture and economic growth: ARDL and causality approach for Rwanda Xiaoling Yuan1, Michel Mivumbi2 1Faculty, School of Economics and Finance, Xi'an Jiaotong University Shaanxi P.R.China. 2Doctoral Researcher Applied Economics, School of Economics and Finance, Xi'an Jiaotong University Shaanxi P.R.China. This study tested the relationship between Rwanda’s economic growth, foreign direct investment, and labor in agricultural spanning between 1970 and 2017. In this paper, the ARDL “bounds” test method is used to analyze the co-integration problem of variables with a constant level relationship. Co-integration coefficients were estimated using the ARDLs model. After verifying the long-term (co-integration) equilibrium relationship of economic growth within the variables, the error correction model is used to estimate the short-term coefficients. We found that agriculture and foreign direct investment have becomes an engine depending of Rwanda’s economic development. The FDI has a causal relationship to economic growth; while labor have no causal relationship to economic growth. The Rwandan government should promote macroeconomic policies to encourage foreign direct investment and promote economic growth in agriculture. Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; Agriculture; ARDL Model; Bounds test; Economic growth ...